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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (7): 1460-1474     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201807016
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市场转向与产业升级路径分析——以珠江三角洲出口导向型家具产业为例
符天蓝1(),杨春2
1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510275
2. 香港浸会大学地理系,香港
Market reorientation and industrial upgrading trajectories: Evidence from the export-oriented furniture industry in the Pearl River Delta
FU Tianlan1(),YANG Chun2
1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 501275, China
2. Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China
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摘要 

近年来,特别是2008年全球金融危机爆发以后,中国出口导向型制造业出现了由以出口为主转向出口和内销并进的发展趋势。然而现有文献较少关注市场转向对制造业企业产业升级的影响。基于全球生产网络的视角,以珠江三角洲出口导向型家具产业为例,通过以深度访谈为主的定性研究方法,探讨出口导向型制造业企业在出口转内销过程中的产业升级路径。结果显示:在与中国国内市场进行战略耦合(strategic coupling)的过程中,家具制造业企业分别通过网络式、企业内部协调式及市场型方式嵌入国内市场导向型的生产网络,并呈现出产业升级(upgrading)和降级(downgrading)等多元化路径。中国市场为家具制造业企业提供了产业升级特别是功能升级的机会,但小部分制造业企业也经历着产品降级的过程。研究市场转向中的产业升级对理解后危机时代新兴市场的崛起具有一定的理论意义;同时对理解在全球经济背景下中国出口导向型加工制造业转型具有实践意义。

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符天蓝
杨春
关键词 市场转向战略耦合产业升级产业降级家具企业珠三角 
Abstract

In the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis, export-oriented industries in China have engaged in the transition from exports to focusing on both exports and domestic sales. However, the impact of market reorientation on industrial upgrading of manufacturing firms remain understudied. Drawing upon the global production networks (GPNs) perspective, this study explores the upgrading trajectories of export-oriented firms in their market reorientation towards China's market. This paper takes the export-oriented furniture industry in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China as a case. On the basis of in-depth interviews, results suggest that furniture firms are strategically coupled with China's domestic market by establishing networks relations, intra-firm coordination relations, and market-based relations with domestic agents. Market reorientation has stimulated variegated upgrading trajectories of furniture firms. Some furniture firms gained functional upgrading opportunities, while some experienced industrial downgrading. The research on industrial upgrading in the market reorientation could enrich the literature by exploring the implications of the rise of emerging markets in the post-crisis era. It also helps to understand the transformation of export-oriented industries in China in the contemporary global economy.

Key wordsmarket reorientation    strategic coupling    industrial upgrading    industrial downgrading    furniture firms    Pearl River Delta
收稿日期: 2018-01-11      出版日期: 2018-08-03
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41571119);香港研究资助局优配项目(HKBU 251712);香港浸会大学研究基金(FRG2/14-15/055,FRG1/15-16/039,FRG1/15-16/053)
引用本文:   
符天蓝, 杨春 . 市场转向与产业升级路径分析——以珠江三角洲出口导向型家具产业为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(7): 1460-1474.
FU Tianlan, YANG Chun . Market reorientation and industrial upgrading trajectories: Evidence from the export-oriented furniture industry in the Pearl River Delta[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(7): 1460-1474.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201807016      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I7/1460
年份 广东省(亿美元) 深圳(亿美元) 深圳占广东省比例(%) 东莞(亿美元) 东莞占广东省比例(%)
2006 69.2 23.8 34.4
2007 89.7 27.4 30.6
2008 102.4 27.1 26.4 27.8 27.1
2009 99.6 30.2 30.3 24.3 24.3
2010 135.3 44.7 33.0 32.1 23.7
2011 149.3 47.2 31.6 34.0 22.8
2012 154.1 38.4 24.9 39.6 25.7
2013 174.5 45.1 25.9 39.6 22.7
2014 196.5 48.8 24.8 44.1 22.4
2015 207.1 43.5 21.0 51.4 24.8
Tab. 1  2006-2015年广东省、深圳和东莞市家具出口
年份 工业产出
(亿元)
出口
(亿美元)
出口增长率(%) 内销
(亿元)
内销份额占中国
总内销的比例(%)
内销占总的工业
总产出的比例(%)
2007 1600 90 995 26.4 62.2
2008 1847 102 14.1 1045 56.6
2010 2450 135 35.7 1540 62.9
2011 2800 149 10.4 1820 24.4 65
2012 3000 154 3.2 2010 23 67
2013 3390 175 13.2 2220 65.5
2014 3630 196 12.6 2350 25 64.7
Tab. 2  2007-2014年广东家具产业的主要经济指标
年份 出口(亿美元) 出口(亿元) 工业销售总产值(亿元) 出口/工业销售值
2006 23.8 189.4 146.1 1.30
2007 27.4 208.7 162.3 1.29
2008 27.8 193.0 162.1 1.19
2009 24.3 165.7 152.4 1.09
2010 32.1 217.2 211.2 1.03
2011 34.0 219.6 197.0 1.11
2012 39.6 249.8 205.2 1.22
2013 39.6 245.5 231.4 1.06
2014 44.1 270.8 238.3 1.14
2015 51.4 319.8 265.6 1.20
Tab. 3  2006-2015年东莞家具产业的主要经济指标
企业工厂所在地 受访谈企业数量 企业投资类型 受访谈家具制造业企业数量 访谈地点和方式 受访谈企业数量
东莞 17 港资 10 东莞家具展实地访谈 26
深圳 9 台资 1 深圳家具展实地访谈 8
佛山 8 民营 25 电话访谈 1
中山 1 企业实地访谈 1
惠阳 1
Tab. 4  访谈信息汇总
内销方式 与国内其他媒介之间关系 升级或降级路径 占比例(36家具企业)(%)
(1)与经销商合作 网络式关系 功能升级 26家(72.2)
(2.1)建立直营店 企业内部协调式关系 功能升级 17家(47.2)
(2.2)建立网上商店 企业内部协调式关系 产品降级 9家(25);5家(13.9)
进行产品降级
(3)直接销售产品给国内经销商 市场型关系 未实现产品升级 9家(25)
Tab. 5  家具企业的内销方式及产业升级或降级路径
Fig. 1  家具企业嵌入生产网络方式
产业升级或降级方式 定义 家具产业 具体情况
程序升级 通过重构生产系统或引进更高级的技术,使得企业提高生产效率。 程序升级 引进较先进的生产线,提高生产效率。如使用自动化生产线。
产品升级 采用更复杂精密的生产线,从而提高每单位产品价值。 产品升级 提高家具产品质量,产品价格提升。
功能升级 获得新的功能(如打造品牌、参与设计或者销售等附加值高的活动)或者放弃已有的功能,从而提高总体的技术活动内容。 功能升级 与经销商合作,打造家具品牌;参与销售设计等附加值高的活动。
产业链升级 企业从一种产业转去另一种产业的生产 活动。
产品降级 本土生产商为了进入低端市场而降低产品质量或生产功能的策略。 产品降级 降低产品质量,直接销售无品牌的产品给网上消费者。
Tab. 6  家具企业的产业升级或降级路径分析
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