地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (8): 1495-1514.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201808003

所属专题: 人地系统

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国人地关系的历史演变过程及影响机制

李小云1,2, 杨宇1,2(), 刘毅1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-22 修回日期:2018-05-18 出版日期:2018-08-20 发布日期:2018-08-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张雷(1951- ),男,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事资源环境开发与区域发展研究。E-mail: zhangl@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41430636)

The evolution process and its mechanism of man-land relationship in China

Xiaoyun LI1,2, Yu YANG1,2(), Yi LIU1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-02-22 Revised:2018-05-18 Online:2018-08-20 Published:2018-08-20
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

人地关系演变具有继承性,从历史视角认识人地关系的演变过程及机制有助于增加对人地关系的综合认知。从人地关系核心内涵出发,将资源环境要素视为人地作用的焦点,以人类的核心需求和主要活动、对“地”的作用强度及认知能力为主线,在梳理中国历史人地关系演变过程的基础上归纳其演变特征,并进一步提炼其演变动力。发现:随着人类生产力水平提高,人对“地”的认知先后经历了“混沌未知、天人合一、人地相称、人定胜天、人地和谐共生”的演变历程。与此相应,中国历史人地关系经历了从萌芽到以土地为核心的一元化关系再到以土地、水、能矿等资源为核心的无序多元化关系以及现如今重新探索有序多元化人地关系的总体历程。从历史视角看,中国人地关系演变的动力机制是:生产力是最核心的动力,促进了人对“地”作用能力的发展;人口是最活跃的动力,人口需求及人口数量和质量的提升增强了人和“地”作用的紧密程度;生产关系主要通过影响人的生产积极性及资源所有权而间接影响人地关系演变;战争和自然灾害对中国历史人地关系演变均起到促进和阻碍的双面作用。无论从理论还是实践层面,人地关系研究不能脱离时代背景。中国现代人地矛盾的形成有其必然性,以史为鉴,提升人对“地”的科学认识,实施因地制宜,加快技术研发和生产方式转型是破解中国当下人地矛盾的重要途径。

关键词: 人地关系, 历史演变, 过程, 机制, 中国

Abstract:

The evolution of man-land relationship is inheritable. Understanding the evolution process of man-land relationship and its mechanism from the historical perspective can help us to increase the comprehensive cognition about this relationship. According to the core connotation of man-land relationship, this paper points out that resources and environment factors are the chief interaction point between human and "land", and human are in the positive position in man-land relationship. Based on this, the paper focuses on the primary human-needs, the main human activities and their action intensity as well as the cognitive ability on "land" to unfold the evolution process, and then to generalize the evolution characteristics of man-land relationship in China, and further, to extract the dynamic factors. Findings suggest that: with human productivity level rising, the perception of human to "land" has experienced successively the following periods: Almost unconscious, Unity of man and land, Mutual matching of man and land, Superior man than land, Co-exist harmoniously man and land. Accordingly, the man-land relationship in China has gone through from the bud, to the singleness relationship centered on farmland, then to the disordered multielement relationships centered on farmland, freshwater, energy and mineral resources etc. till nowadays to well-organized multielement relationships chased by human again. Historically, the dynamic mechanism of the man-land relationship evolution in China is that, productivity is the most core motivation, which promoted the development of humans' ability to act on "land"; The population is the most active power, since the population demands, and the population size and together quality increasing, enhance the closeness between human and "land"; the production relationship mainly influences the evolution process of man-land relationship indirectly through influencing human's enthusiasm for production and resource ownership; both wars and natural disasters have promoted and hindered effects on the historical evolution process of man-land relationship in China. Taking history as a mirror, the study of man-land relationship cannot be divorced from its varying background, both theoretically and practically. Also, the formation of contradictory between human and "land" in modern China has its inevitability. The basis of long-term harmonies between human and "land" rests on promoting human's scientific cognition about "man -land relationship", and also adjusting human's behaviors under various local conditions. Besides, speeding up the technology development and upgrading the mode of production are also important approaches to relieving the present contradictions between human activities and multiple land elements.

Key words: man-land relationship, historical evolution, process, mechanism, China