地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (8): 1609-1623.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201808011

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中国城乡建设占用耕地的时空格局及形成机制

刘涛1,2(), 史秋洁3, 王雨4,5(), 杨宇6,7   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学未来城市研究中心,北京 100871
    3. 牛津大学地理与环境学院,英国 牛津 OX13QY
    4. 中山大学中国公共管理研究中心,广州 510275
    5. 中山大学政治与公共事务管理学院,广州 510275
    6. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院区域可持续发展分析模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    7. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-08 修回日期:2018-05-15 出版日期:2018-08-20 发布日期:2018-09-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘涛(1987- ),安徽宿州人,博士,研究员,研究方向为城镇化、土地开发、人口迁移。E-mail: liutao@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41430636);国家自然科学基金项目(41571159);英国研究理事会基金项目(ES/P011055/1);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(16JJD630009)

Urban-rural development and occupation of cultivated land in China: Trends, geography, and drivers

Tao LIU1,2(), Qiujie SHI3, Yu WANG4,5(), Yu YANG6,7   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Center for Urban Future Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    3. School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK
    4. Center for Chinese Public Administration Research, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    5. School of Government, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    6. Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, The Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Analysis and Simulation, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    7. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-03-08 Revised:2018-05-15 Online:2018-08-20 Published:2018-09-08
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

描绘了1996-2006年间中国城乡建设用地增长及其占用耕地的时空特征,探讨了城乡建设占用耕地的驱动机制。研究发现:人口流动为主的城镇化模式导致农业转移人口在城乡“两头占地”,这是中国城乡建设用地持续扩张的主要根源;各类开发区的设立和扩张都以占用耕地为主,对城乡建设占用耕地的贡献超过一半;而城市和镇的扩张速度更慢、土地来源更为多元。实证结果表明,投资和产出增长的差异性对城乡建设及其耕地占用的时空格局起到了关键作用;中西部地区的基础设施建设占用了大量耕地,但对区域经济发展和人口集聚的带动作用有限;以开发区为载体的产业集聚发展模式有利于中西部地区的土地集约利用和耕地保护,而东部沿海地区的省级开发区则容易成为地方政府的圈地运动。土地集约利用和耕地保护政策应重点解决农业转移人口城乡同时占地的问题,发挥城镇化的节地效应,并强化政策的区域差异性和针对性。

关键词: 土地利用变化, 城乡建设用地, 耕地流失, 耕地占用, 政策评估

Abstract:

This paper, using the national land survey and the annual land use change survey, depicts the spatio-temporal patterns of urban-rural construction land expansion and its occupation of cultivated land. It also explores the mechanisms through which the cultivated land was occupied. Results showed that construction land in both urban and rural areas expanded over the period 1996-2006 despite a large number of rural-urban migrants - the major contributor to the rapid urbanization in China. This dual expansion could mainly be attributed to the tendency of these migrants to keep or even enlarge their rural construction land, which also resulted in a severer cultivated land loss than that caused by the expansion of urban construction land. In other words, urbanization in current China has contributed to more construction land per person, rather that the opposite as in many other countries. Within the urban construction land, it was mainly the industrial and mining land used for the development of Economic Development Zones (EDZs) that expanded at the highest rate and that occupied the most cultivated land. By contrast, construction land for cities and towns had a relatively slow growth rate and more diverse sources. In addition, influencing factors for construction land expansion could be better discerned if only the occupation of cultivated land was taken into account. Among the factors that influenced the spatio-temporal patterns of the occupation of cultivated land, it was the inter-regional difference in the stage of development that stood out. Infrastructure development was the leading force that drove construction land expansion in inland regions, while its positive effect on regional economic development and population agglomeration remained limited, leading to inefficient utilization of urban and rural construction land. The establishment of EDZs was conducive to efficient utilization of construction land through facilitating a concentrated spatial model of development in inland regions. By contrast, it has to a great extent become a new form of enclosure movement and led to wasteful usage of urban land resources in coastal regions. It is suggested that the problem of occupying construction land in both rural and urban areas by migrants should be prioritized, the utility of the market should be maximized, and the regional differences should be considered when policies targeted at intensive land use and cultivated land protection are to be formualted.

Key words: land use change, urban-rural construction land, cultivated land loss, occupation of cultivated land, policy assessment