地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (9): 1724-1735.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201809006

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山区合适耕地经营规模确定的实证研究——以重庆市为例

范乔希1(), 邵景安2,3(), 应寿英1   

  1. 1. 成都信息工程大学统计学院,成都 610103
    2. 重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院,重庆 400047
    3. 三峡库区地表过程与环境遥感重庆市重点实验室,重庆 400047
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-07 修回日期:2018-07-03 出版日期:2018-10-22 发布日期:2018-10-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:范乔希(1977- ),女,四川乐山人,副教授,研究方向为农村经济。 E-mail: fqxi@cuit.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家基金委重大国际合作项目(41161140352);国家社会科学基金西部项目(18XSH008);四川省软科学研究计划项目(2017ZR0163);四川省社会科学“十三五”规划2016年度项目(SC16B020);国家统计局统计信息技术与数据挖掘重点开放实验室开放课题(SDL201508,SDL201709)

The empirical determination on appropriate management scale of cultivated land in mountainous areas: A case study of Chongqing

Qiaoxi FAN1(), Jing'an SHAO2,3(), Shouying YING1   

  1. 1. Chengdu University of Information Technology, School of Statistics, Chengdu, 610103, China
    2. College of Geography and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Surface Process and Environment Remote Sensing in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Chongqing 400047, China
  • Received:2018-03-07 Revised:2018-07-03 Online:2018-10-22 Published:2018-10-22
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

在地形起伏、地块破碎、分布半径较远等约束下,山区多大的经营规模是合适的?这是目前必须弄清的科学问题之一。使用480份有效调查问卷,以投入农业的劳动力为测算单位,以劳均纯收入为评价指标,分作物类型和地块分布半径,构建计量经济模型,测算不同条件下合适的耕地经营,结果表明:① 在现有社会经济条件下,样本村农业土地适度规模经营面积为24~32亩,适度规模下的劳均纯收入远高于当前农村人均纯收入,且与城镇居民的差距明显缩小。② 作物类型对适度规模影响不大,但对农民纯收入产生较大作用。经济作物和粮食作物的适度规模分别为24.33亩、24.63亩,差异不显著,但种植经济作物和粮食作物在适度规模下的劳均纯收入相差3638元,巨大的差距将促使经济作物种植面积不断扩大。③ 距离对适度规模影响较大,但对劳均纯收入影响不大。0.5 km内、0.5~1 km的适度规模分别为28.62亩、31.83亩,单位劳动力的适度规模相差3亩,这表明距离是目前从事农业生产时劳动力投入时须考虑的重要因素。但是,对应的劳均纯收入相差较小,又说明伴随耕作距离的增加,更多的投入主要依靠机械来完成,从而带动适度规模的扩大。1 km外的建模未通过检验,也进一步说明未实现规模经营、没有进行机械化耕作、离家远的土地收支严重不平衡,撂荒严重,规模化经营、机械化耕作是解决距离问题的有效途径。本文得出的土地适度规模是可行的,也验证了推进土地适度规模经营的可行性和必要性。

关键词: 耕地, 合适经营规模, 作物类型, 地块分布半径, 山区

Abstract:

In the context of the state allowing the transfer of rural contracted management rights and the development of modern agriculture, what scale is appropriate in the mountain area, and which is characteristic of the ups and downs of the topography, the fragmentation of the land and the far radius of the distribution? This is one of the scientific problems that must be clarified at the moment. Using 480 valid questionnaires, with the investment of agricultural labor force as the calculating unit, and with per labor net income as the evaluation index, we constructed econometric model from two aspects of crop type and radius of plot distribution. The results showed that: (1) In the current social and economic conditions, the area of moderate scale management of agricultural land is 24-32 mu. Per labor net income is far higher than the current rural per capita net income at moderate scale, and the gap between the urban and rural residents has significantly reduced. (2) The type of crops has little influence on the moderate scale, but it has a great influence on the net income of farmers. The moderate scale of economic crops and grain crops were 24.33 mu and 24.63 mu, respectively, but the difference was not significant. Per labor net income gap is 3638 yuan by planting economic crops and grain crops at moderate scale. The huge gap will prompt the development of economic crops in some areas suitable for economic crops. (3) The distance has great influence on the land moderate scale, but has little effect on the per labor net income. The areas within the distance of 0.5 km and 0.5-1 km at moderate scale were 28.62 mu and 31.83 mu, respectively, and the gap between moderate scales of average labor is 3 mu. This shows that distance is an important factor in agricultural production. However, the gap between per labor net income is small, which illustrates that the expansion of the moderate scale is mainly attributed to machinery with the increase of working distance. The model of land outside of 1 km fails to pass statistical test, which is further confirmed. Therefore, large-scale operation and mechanized farming are effective ways to solve the problem of distance; (4) Moderate scales of land are feasible and the feasibility and necessity for promoting the moderate scale of land management are demonstrated. This will provide scientific reference for the government to formulate the rural land management policy.

Key words: cultivated land, appropriate management scale, crop types, cultivated land distribution radius, mountainous areas