地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (10): 1982-1996.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201810009

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基于CAS理论的传统村落人居环境演化研究——以张谷英村为例

李伯华1,2,3(), 曾荣倩2, 刘沛林1,2,3, 刘一曼2, 窦银娣1,2   

  1. 1. 湖南省人居环境学研究基地,衡阳 421002
    2. 衡阳师范学院城市与旅游学院,衡阳 421002
    3. 古村古镇文化遗产数字化传承湖南省协同创新中心,衡阳 421002
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-11 出版日期:2018-10-20 发布日期:2018-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李伯华(1979- ),男,湖北黄冈人,博士,教授,研究方向为人居环境学。E-mail: libeny_2058@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571161,41501191);国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA159);湖南省社会科学基金重点项目(17DB054);湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会项目(XSP18YBZ041);衡阳师范学院第十七届大学生课外学术科技作品重点项目(H49)

Human settlement evolution of traditional village based on theory of complex adaptive system: A case study of Zhangguying village

Bohua LI1,2,3(), Rongqian ZENG2, Peilin LIU1,2,3, Yiman LIU2, Yindi DOU1,2   

  1. 1. Research Establishment for Hunan Settlement, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
    2. College of City & Tourism, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China;
    3. Cooperative Innovation Centre for Digitalization of Cultural Heritage in Ancient Villages and Town, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
  • Received:2018-04-11 Online:2018-10-20 Published:2018-11-20
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

以复杂适应系统理论为基础,从基本特征、结构构成和适应机制等视角分析了传统村落人居环境的系统特征。传统村落人居环境系统由自然生态环境系统、社会文化环境系统、地域空间环境系统和多元主体系统等4个子系统构成,与复杂适应系统特征非常契合。以张谷英村为例,研究了其人居环境演化过程,结果显示:① 在徘徊阶段(1978-1988年),村民自组织发展是张谷英村人居环境演变的主导力量,主体适应性行为和人居效应的作用强度均有限,人居环境系统演变处于量变的积累阶段;② 在过渡阶段(1989-2001年),政府的强势介入是张谷英村人居环境演变的主导力量,导致了利益关联的复杂性、流要素转化的高速性以及系统演化的不确定性,人居环境系统演变处于质变的关键阶段;③ 在剧变阶段(2002年至今),多元主体的交互作用是张谷英村人居环境演变的主导力量,各主体之间、主体与环境之间的作用强度和复杂程度增强,加速了人居环境功能转型和系统结构质的跃升。为了促进张谷英村人居环境系统的有序升华,从提升自适应能力、重视自组织反应、优化主导调控和引入社会治理等视角构建了系统调控机制。

关键词: 复杂适应系统, 传统村落, 人居环境, 调控机制, 张谷英村

Abstract:

Severe crisis such as architectural landscape destruction, cultural gene loss, settlement space conflict and ecological environment deterioration have aroused widespread concern on transformation of traditional villages' human settlement. Based on complex adaptive system theory, this paper analyzes the systematic characteristics of human settlement from the perspectives of the systematic basic features, structural composition and adaptive mechanism. Composed of natural ecology, social culture, regional space and multi-agent systems, the rural human settlement environment system is a huge open complex system. Compromising multiple objectives, multiple subjects and multiple sub-systems, the system is compatible with complex adaptive system features. With the case of Zhangguying village human settlement evolution studied, the conclusions are shown as follows: (1) At the wavering stage (1978-1988), the villagers' self-organizing development was the leading force of the human settlement evolution. The subject adaptive behavior and the effect of human settlement were both limited. The human settlement evolution of Zhangguying village was still on the accumulative stage of quantitative change. (2) At the transitional stage (1989-2001), strong government intervention was the leading force. This intervention resulted in the complexity of interest relation, high speed transformation of flow elements and uncertainty of systematic evolution. The human settlement evolution of Zhangguying village was on the key stage of qualitative change. (3) At the revulsion stage (2002-till now), interaction of multiple subjects has been the leading force. The intensity and complexity between subjects or between subjects and environment have both increased. Continuous tourism input has led to the dramatic change of the human settlement environment. The transformation of human settlement has been realized. The structure and level of the system have undergone a qualitative leap. In order to promote the orderly development of the traditional villages' human settlement, the paper constructs systematic regulation mechanism from the perspectives of promoting self-adaptive capacity, emphasizing self-organizing reaction, optimizing dominant regulation and introducing social governance. Using complex adaptive system theory to study science of human settlements is still at a groping stage, and it needs to be further improved, which provides innovation space for future research.

Key words: complex adaptive system, traditional village, human settlement, regulation mechanism, Zhangguying village