地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (11): 2236-2248.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201811009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海城市社会空间演化研究——基于户籍与职业双维度

王春兰1(), 杨上广2, 何骏1, 刘陆雪1   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学人口研究所,上海 200241
    2. 华东理工大学经济发展所,上海 200237
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-17 修回日期:2018-09-20 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2018-11-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王春兰(1980- ),女,安徽潜山人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为人口地理、社会地理与公共政策。E-mail: clwang@soci.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(15BRK039)

On the social space evolution of Shanghai: In dual dimensions of the Hukou and the occupation

Chunlan WANG1(), Shangguang YANG2, Jun HE1, Luxue LIU1   

  1. 1. Institute of Population Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    2. Economy Development Institute, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
  • Received:2018-07-17 Revised:2018-09-20 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2018-11-23
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

基于上海市人口地理信息库与2000年、2010年两期人口普查分居村委统计数据,采用局部分异指数及空间分析方法,从职业和户籍两个维度刻画全球化、市场化背景下上海城市社会空间的演化特征。结果表明:中观尺度上,上海市在职业和户籍两个维度的居住分异特征明显,“中心—边缘”的社会空间结构特征较为稳定,中心城绅士化、白领化发展,普通白领阶层、跨省移民居住空间边缘化发展。在中观尺度上职业维度的居住分异较之户籍维度的居住分异更为明显,微观社区尺度上存在超越职业身份的户籍维度居住分异现象,居住隔离程度快速攀升。弱势群体在边缘社会空间集聚可能进一步加剧社会不公平问题,应重视空间维度上的城市治理。

关键词: 居住分异, 社会空间结构, 演化, 上海

Abstract:

In the study of urban socio-spatial evolution, the residents committee could be taken as the basic unit of analysis because it has a relatively similar socio-economic status. It might be more accurate to assess the residential differentiation and segregation degree and reduce the underestimation effect using the data of residential committees. Based on the Shanghai population geographic information database and census data obtained from 2000 and 2010 with statistical units of the residents committee, the present study used the local differentiation index and spatial analysis methods to describe the characteristics of urban residential differentiation and social space evolution in Shanghai under the background of globalization and marketization in dual dimensions of the Hukou and the occupation. The results demonstrated that in Shanghai, the residential differentiation characteristics were apparent and the "core-periphery" socio-spatial structure formed before 1949 was largely unchanged. Consequently, inner city of Shanghai experienced rapid gentrification and white-collar gathering during the last two censuses. The residential space of the elite class was closer to the city center, and the residential space of ordinary white-collar social classes were further marginalized with urban expansion. This confirmed other scholars' opinions on the marginalization of white-collar workers and the differentiation of the middle class based on case studies. The inter-provincial immigrant residential areas shifted from the edge of the central urban area to the area outside the central city, and further to the outer suburbs. Transnational and native elites dominated the space production - the reproduction of social relations, which brought about long-term stability of urban social space in Shanghai. At macro-scale, the residential differentiation in the occupation dimension was more obvious than that of the Hukou dimension. At micro-scale, the urban residential segregation index climbed quickly, while the residential differentiation in the Hukou dimension truly existed, which was independent of the occupation difference. The disadvantaged group gathered in the marginal social space and social inequality might be more severe in the future. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the social equality governance in the urban space and further analysis should be made on the social space characteristics, space power relations, and space logic of Chinese large cities.

Key words: residential differentiation, social space structure, evolution, Shanghai