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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (12): 2383-2398     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201812002
  彭华教授纪念专栏 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
乡村地区旅游城镇化的多主体共治模式——以福建泰宁水际村为例
彭华(),何瑞翔,翁时秀()
中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
Collaborative governance model of tourism urbanization in rural areas: A case study of Shuiji village in Taining county, Fujian
PENG Hua(),HE Ruixiang,WENG Shixiu()
School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
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摘要 

在乡村振兴战略背景下,乡村旅游地的城镇化研究亟需总结更多更好的中国经验。福建省泰宁县水际村1991-2016年的旅游城镇化体现了一种学界尚未关注到的多主体共治模式,村民在保持地权关系不变的情况下,通过多主体的良性互动实现了就地城镇化。在城镇化过程中,得益于政府的引导、培育和制度建设,乡村经济在利益冲突中保持韧性并持续发展;外来企业的进入则带动了村民经济收入的增长,村民在商业运营中完成了生活方式现代化和思维观念市民化。本文按照案例研究的逻辑,分析了多主体共治状态的形成过程、核心要素及其作用机制。多类主体实现共治的核心要素是有效的制度供给、合理的科层制分工、灵活的产权设计、实现分配正义的市场规则和多类主体之间的理性互动与权力制衡。基于这些核心要素的共同作用,多类主体之间实现共同利益最大化,保障资源效益可以有效地进行再分配,最大限度地发挥旅游促进乡村经济发展和改善人民生活的城镇化目标。可以认为,多主体共同治理是实现乡村旅游城镇化的有效途径。总结这种模式有利于丰富新型城镇化的乡村个案,同时为新时期乡村转型的有效治理提供参考。

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彭华
何瑞翔
翁时秀
关键词 旅游城镇化多主体共治乡村振兴发展机制 
Abstract

Tourism has long been adopted as a means to revitalizing and urbanizing rural areas, and its significant role recently is mirrored in the Rural Revitalization Strategy. Actually, in some villages, such as the Shuiji village of Taining county, Fujian, which is selected in this study, tourism not only plays an essential role in revitalizing the local area. A collaborative governance model has also emerged over the course of the urbanization, which, nevertheless, still fails to seduce many scholars and researchers insofar. This article, thus, contributes to nuanced insights into this new governance model as well as the mechanism of tourism urbanization in Shuiji village. Specifically, despite embracing multi-stakeholders' collaboration and negotiation, this model, still highlights, if hardly prioritize, the roles of a few key agents, notably, but not exclusively, villagers, overseas corporations and the local government. Precisely, it should be first recognized that the local state usually plays an essential part in integrating resources, initiating institutional construction, directing local economic development and negotiating with different stakeholders, whose interests might vary from one to another. Whilst, possessing their land rights and modernized life style villages are usually inspired to actively interact and negotiate with other stakeholders. In recent years, it has already become the fashion that Chinese local governments strive to attract overseas developers and corporations to invest and manage tourism projects in rural areas. Their inclusion might stimulate locals' income. Nevertheless, to realize the collaborative governance mode is never easy, and its success apparently relies upon multiple factors, primarily including effective institutional supply, reasonable division of labor, flexible design of property right system, market rules for realizing distributive justice and rational interaction and balance of power among stakeholders. As a joint effort of all these factors, it is most likely to achieve common interests among stakeholders in rural areas. And resources could be redistributed effectively either, so as to respectively facilitate the urbanization progress and local tourism and economic development. All in all, the collaborative governance, to a considerable extent, could be treasured as an effective way to promote rural tourism urbanization. And tourism-led urbanization mode is unambiguously quite useful in enriching the case studies concerning new-type urbanization in rural areas and paving the way for effective governance of rural transformation in the foreseeable future.

Key wordstourism urbanization    collaborative governance    rural revitalization    development mechanism
收稿日期: 2018-06-24      出版日期: 2018-12-24
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41771008,41201139);国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2013FY111900)
引用本文:   
彭华, 何瑞翔, 翁时秀 . 乡村地区旅游城镇化的多主体共治模式——以福建泰宁水际村为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(12): 2383-2398.
PENG Hua, HE Ruixiang, WENG Shixiu . Collaborative governance model of tourism urbanization in rural areas: A case study of Shuiji village in Taining county, Fujian[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(12): 2383-2398.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201812002      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I12/2383
典型模式 行政或资本主导 社区主导 多主体互动
发展特征 自上而下 自下而上 自下、自内、自外
相对优势 城镇体系清晰、人口置换迅速、城镇基建完善、空间格局合理 生产方式转变完全、生活方式变迁迅速、乡村经济富裕、商业意识完备 社区主体全面参与、社会观念转变深刻、公共利益最大化
问题弊端 虚假城镇化、过度城镇化、乡村房地产化、乡村性丧失、再贫困 公地悲剧、乡村失控失序、景观失调、利益分配失衡 政商资本杂糅、象征性治理,半城镇化
已有案例 汤口镇[17]、闸坡镇[18]、三圣花乡[19]、九寨沟漳扎镇[23]、井冈山拿山乡附近*[21]、北京市远郊区乡村[12] 阳朔历村[4]、西递宏村、井冈山土岭村[21]、西双版纳傣族村寨[16] 丹霞山瑶塘、断石村[24]、野三坡苟各庄村[22]
Tab. 1  三种典型乡村旅游城镇化发展模式总结
特征类别 初级(1991-2000年) 扩张(2001-2003年) 调整(2004-2009年) 持续发展(2010年至今)
空间形态* 基本为农用地和宅基地,出现造船厂、纸箱厂、手套厂等仓储用地 建成下坊新村,2003年建筑面积8.2万m2 广场、停车场增多;金阳明星度假山庄建成46栋别墅、建设用地明显增多 以旅游用地和住宅用地为主,2016年建筑面积约13.4万m2
商业投资* 村民自筹12万投资建设“野趣源”旅游项目 武夷山客商投资茶园160万元;投资建设三剑峰食品公司300万元 大金湖渔业有限公司成立、引入石谷半岛度假俱乐部,投资约19.24亿元 吸引投资30余亿元。建成金湖湾度假村,闽台茶园等突出项目
景观符号* 景观保持原生态乡村风貌,部分地区建有码头 出现成片铺排的徽派建筑物,建成广场、停车场等多处城镇实体景观 徽派建筑风格特色出众,成为泰宁象征性意义的城市符号 沿线小城镇建筑风貌突出,90%农户建有别墅型住宅
产业结构* 产业结构从农林渔业逐渐向第三产业倾斜,2000年第三产值占比32.4% 村民从事农家乐和家庭旅馆,2003年第三产值占比52.10% 以旅游服务业为主,个体户居多,2009年第三产值占比75.48% 村内多样化的生产系统,2016年第三产值占比80.3%
文化观念 参与旅游生产和经营获得思想启蒙,生产方式逐渐脱离土地 生活方式基本脱离土地,出行交通工具和现代居家设施基本齐全 接受城市文化,社会与价值观念完全转化,生活水准与县城无异 消费观念改变、商业理性提高,积极利用创收再投资
社会人口* 以本地村民为主。2000年全村470人 人口非农就地转化,2003年全村473人 较少本地人口迁出,2009年全村500人 人口社会特征明显,2016年全村513人
经济水平 2000年人均3415元,高于全县人均3230元 2003年人均4018元,高于全县人均3489元 2009年人均12869元,高于全县人均6207元 2016年人均17323元,高于全县人均13106元
Tab. 2  水际村旅游城镇化发展特征
阶段 参与主体* 旅游城镇化重要事件(发生年) 运作/举措
初级阶段
1991-2000年
政、村 县政府实施“金湖兴县”战略,成立金湖综合开发领导小组加快景区建设(1991) 权力下放
政、企 县政府制定关于《鼓励外来企业投资金湖的系列优惠政策》(1992) 政策调控
村、政 水际村委股份制集资开发旅游项目“野趣源”(1993) 村办集股
政、村 管委会与村民股份制联营成立大金湖航运集团公司(1996) 引导联营
政、村 政府改革金湖管委会机构,将县旅游事业局归口管委会领导(1997) 权力下放
扩张阶段
2001-2003年
政、企 政府转让金湖景区经营权,并成立金泰旅游实业发展有限公司 (2001) 经营权盘活
村、企 福新公司建成金阳明星度假山庄,修建大量基础设施,改变乡村景观风貌(2002) 商业带动
企、政、村 福新公司引入明星代言金湖广告、拍摄连续剧《布衣知县梵如花》(2002) 品牌运作
政、企、村 县政府规划建成下坊旅游新村并完善乡村公共设施(2003) 设施完善
调整阶段
2004-2009年
村、政 水际村委组织村民成立渔业协会(2005) 村办集股
村、企 村民在企业带动下组织成立下坊村民宿旅馆业(2005) 自办集股
政、村、企 县政府成立泰宁县散客旅游服务接待中心和大型团队结算中心(2005) 规范经营
政、村 金湖旅游经济开发有限公司,船舶管理中心,监察大队对并入管委会(2005) 权力下放
政、村、企 县政府出台“泰宁县家庭旅馆六点整治办法”(2006) 规范经营
企、政、村 福新公司承包福建教育电视台经营权,不断投放大金湖广告(2005-2008) 品牌运作
政、村 泰宁旅游管委会成为分管县委机构设立的多块牌子的权力组织(2009) 权力下放
持续发展阶段
2010年至今
政、村、企 县政府申请“中国丹霞”世界遗产,进行村庄整治与基础设施铺建(2010) 品牌构建
村、企 水际村以土地入股的形式与企业合资成立金湖湾度假村投资有限公司(2011) 扩大投资
政、村 泰宁县政府推进水际村成为“五朵金花”乡村旅游专业村工程代表之一(2014) 顶层规划
企、政、村 举办金湖渔人节(2014)、海峡两岸金湖明月节(2014)、泰宁七夕国际帐篷节(2017) 品牌构建
政、村 动工建设水际淡水鱼展览馆、水际村渔文化综合大楼、库湾赏鱼垂钓基地(2015) 设施完善
Tab. 3  水际村旅游城镇化过程中多类主体的互动举措
Fig. 1  多主体共治下的水际村旅游城镇化过程
灰色为利益主体 浅橙色为涉及产权制度灵活设计的主体
Fig. 2  乡村地区旅游城镇化的多主体共治模式
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