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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (12): 2420-2432     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201812005
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
1965-2014年北京西郊地区植物观赏期对气候变化的响应
高新月1,2(),戴君虎1(),张明庆2
1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
2. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
Responses of variations of plant ornamental period to climate change in the west suburbs of Beijing from 1965-2014
GAO Xinyue1,2(),DAI Junhu1(),ZHANG Mingqing2
1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
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摘要 

基于1965-2014年北京地区50种植物物候数据和同期日均温等气象资料,运用相关、回归分析法分析了北京地区绿叶观赏期、观花期和秋叶观赏期(开始日、结束日、时间长度)的变化趋势、变化形式及其对气候变化的响应情况。结果表明:① 北京西郊地区50种植物的绿叶观赏期为4月14日-10月15日,观赏期长度为163~219天。观花期为4月29日-5月17日,观花期长度为6~77天。秋叶观赏期为10月15日-11月14日,观赏期长度为16~41天。② 近50年来,北京西郊地区50种植物的3个观赏期都发生了一定程度的变化。绿叶观赏期开始日提前3.1天/10a,结束日推迟3.6天/10a,观赏期延长6.8天/10a。观花期开始日提前1.6天/10a,结束日提前0.5天/10a,观赏期延长1.2天/10a。秋叶观赏期开始日推迟3.6天/10a,结束日推迟1.1天/10a,观赏期缩短2.5天/10a。③ 绿叶观赏期延长主要表现为开始日提前,结束日推迟。观花期延长主要表现为开始日提前程度大于结束日提前程度,春花植物和夏花植物的观花期延长和缩短的表现形式基本一致。秋叶观赏期缩短主要表现为开始日推迟程度大于结束日推迟程度。④ 春季气温升高1 ℃,绿叶观赏期开始日提前3.9天、结束日推迟5.2天;观花期开始日提前3.4天,结束日提前1.9天。秋季气温升高1 ℃,秋叶观赏期开始日和结束日分别推迟5.2天和2.2天。⑤ 将不同观赏期重叠搭配可营造不同色彩和风格的植被景观,进而设计出不同特色的景观观赏主题。植物观赏期的变化可为园林景观创新设计提供有力参考,为植物观赏活动时间的安排提供科学依据。

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高新月
戴君虎
张明庆
关键词 气候变化物候响应观赏期北京 
Abstract

Based on the phenological data of 50 plant species and the mean daily temperature data from 1965 to 2014, we analyzed the trend, the change patterns, and their response to climate change of ornamental period of leaf greenness, flowering, and leaf coloring and falling (beginning date, end date, and duration), respectively, by applying correlation and regression analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) For all the 50 plant species, the ornamental period of leaf greenness, flowering, and leaf coloring and falling was from April 14 to October 15, April 29 to May 17, October 15 to November 14, respectively. The duration ranged from 163 to 219 days for leaf greenness ornamental period, 6 to 77 days for flowering, 16 to 41 days for leaf coloring and falling. (2) During the study period, the beginning date exhibited an advancing trend of 3.1 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental activities and 1.6 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental activities, respectively, but a delaying trend of 3.6 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling ornamental activities. The end date exhibited a delaying trend of 3.6 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental activities and 1.1 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling ornamental activities, respectively, but advancing trend of 0.5 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental activities. The duration has extended by 6.8 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental period and 1.2 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental periods, respectively, but shortened by 2.5 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling. (3) The extending leaf greenness ornamental period was caused by an earlier beginning date and a later end date. The extending flowering ornamental period was induced by a much earlier beginning date and a less earlier end date. The extending and shortening forms of flowering ornamental period of spring flowering plants were consistent with those of summer flowering plants. The shortening leaf coloring and falling ornamental period was induced by a much later beginning date and a less later end date. (4) The beginning date of ornamental periods of leaf greenness, the beginning and end dates of flowering ornamental period advanced by 3.9 days, 3.4 says and 1.9 days °C-1 in spring, respectively. However, the end date of ornamental period of leaf greenness delayed by 5.2 days °C-1 in spring. The beginning and end dates of ornamental period of leaf coloring and leaf falling delayed by 5.2 days and 2.2 days 1°C-1 in autumn. (5) By combining different phenophases, we identified landscape patterns with different colors and styles, and designed different landscape themes accordingly. Therefore, the study of changes of plant phenology provides a reference for both the innovative design of landscape and the arrangement of plant ornamental vacation.

Key wordsclimate change    phenological response    plant ornamental vacation    Beijing
收稿日期: 2018-06-29      出版日期: 2018-12-24
基金资助:国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0606100);国家自然科学基金项目(41771056,41427805);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-310-02)
引用本文:   
高新月, 戴君虎, 张明庆 . 1965-2014年北京西郊地区植物观赏期对气候变化的响应[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(12): 2420-2432.
GAO Xinyue, DAI Junhu, ZHANG Mingqing . Responses of variations of plant ornamental period to climate change in the west suburbs of Beijing from 1965-2014[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(12): 2420-2432.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201812005      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I12/2420
序号 物种名 学名 生活型 观测年数
1 白丁香 Syringa oblate var. alba 落叶灌木 31
2 白蜡 Fraxinus chinensis 落叶乔木 44
3 板栗 Castanea mollissima 落叶乔木 46
4 碧桃 Amygdalus persica f. duplex Rehd. 落叶乔木 33
5 臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 落叶乔木 43
6 刺槐 Robinia pseudoacacia 落叶乔木 45
7 杜梨 Pyrus betulifolia 落叶乔木 30
8 旱柳 Salix matsudana 落叶乔木 43
9 合欢 Albizia julibrissin 落叶乔木 43
10 荷花丁香 Syringa reticulata var. amurensis 落叶乔木 43
11 核桃 Juglans regia 落叶乔木 30
12 槐树 Sophora japonica 落叶乔木 42
13 黄刺玫 Rosa xanthine 落叶灌木 29
14 黄栌 Cotinus coggygria 落叶乔木 28
15 鸡麻 Rhodotypos scandens 落叶灌木 28
16 加拿大杨 Populus Canadensis 落叶乔木 43
17 君迁子 Diospyros lotus 落叶乔木 42
18 连翘 Forsythia suspensa 落叶灌木 31
19 龙爪槐 Sophora japonica var. pendula 落叶乔木 33
20 栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 落叶乔木 34
21 毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 落叶乔木 41
22 牡丹 Paeonia suffruticosa 落叶灌木 45
23 木槿 Hibiscus syriacus 落叶灌木 22
24 泡桐 Paulownia fortune 落叶乔木 25
25 楸树 Catalpa bungei 落叶乔木 34
26 日本樱花 Cerasus yedoensis 落叶乔木 44
27 Morus alba 落叶乔木 43
28 色木槭 Acer mono 落叶乔木 44
29 山桃 Prunus davidiana 落叶乔木 46
30 山楂 Crataegus pinnatifida 落叶乔木 24
31 石榴 Punica granatum 落叶乔木 32
32 Diospgros kaki 落叶乔木 42
33 太平花 Philadelphus pekinensis 落叶灌木 16
34 探春 Jasminum floridum 落叶灌木 23
35 绦柳 Salix matsudana f. pendula 落叶乔木 46
36 梧桐 Firmiana simples 落叶乔木 43
37 西府海棠 Malus micromalus 落叶灌木 46
38 小叶杨 Populus simonii 落叶乔木 26
39 辛夷 Magnolia liliflora 落叶灌木 45
40 Prunus armenica 落叶乔木 43
41 银杏 Ginkgo biloba 落叶乔木 30
42 迎春花 Jasminum nudiflorum 落叶灌木 21
43 榆树 Ulmus pumila 落叶乔木 44
44 榆叶梅 Amygdalus triloba 落叶灌木 39
45 玉兰 Magnolia denudate 落叶乔木 46
46 Ziziphus jujube 落叶乔木 33
47 紫丁香 Syringa oblate 落叶灌木 44
48 紫荆 Cercis chinensis 落叶灌木 43
49 紫藤 Wisteria sinensis 落叶藤本 44
50 紫薇 Lagerstroemia indica 落叶乔木 43
Tab. 1  研究选用的全部观测植物概况
Fig. 1  观赏期长度的频率分布
Fig. 2  观赏期变化趋势的频率分布
虚线为变化趋势的平均值
观赏期 观赏期变化类型 变化形式 物种数 百分比(%)
绿叶观赏期 延长 FLD提前,FCD推迟 48 96
FCD推迟>FLD推迟 1 2
缩短 FLD推迟,FCD提前 1 2
观花期 延长 FFD提前>EFD提前 29 58
FFD提前,EFD推迟 6 12
FFD推迟<EFD推迟 1 2
缩短 FFD提前<EFD提前 12 24
FFD推迟>EFD推迟 1 2
FFD推迟,EFD提前 1 2
秋叶观赏期 延长 FCD推迟<LFD推迟 5 10
FCD提前,LFD推迟 1 2
缩短 FCD推迟>LFD推迟 31 62
FCD推迟,LFD提前 13 26
Tab. 2  观赏期长度的变化形式
观花期 观花期变化类型 变化形式 物种数 百分比(%)
春花期 延长 FFD提前>EFD提前 27 64.3
FFD提前,EFD推迟 4 9.5
FFD推迟< EFD推迟 1 2.3
缩短 FFD提前<EFD提前 9 20.9
FFD推迟,EFD提前 1 2.3
夏花期 延长 FFD提前>EFD提前 2 25
FFD提前,EFD推迟 2 25
缩短 FFD提前<EFD提前 3 37.5
FFD推迟> EFD推迟 1 12.5
Tab. 3  不同季节观花期长度的变化形式
Fig. 3  绿叶观赏期的开始日、结束日与最优时段气温的回归系数频率分布
虚线为变化趋势的平均值
Fig. 4  观花期的开始日、结束日与最优时段气温的回归系数频率分布
虚线为变化趋势的平均值
Fig. 5  秋叶观赏期的开始日、结束日与最优时段气温的回归系数频率分布
虚线为变化趋势的平均值
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