地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (12): 2420-2432.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812005

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

1965-2014年北京西郊地区植物观赏期对气候变化的响应

高新月1,2(), 戴君虎1(), 张明庆2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-29 修回日期:2018-09-11 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:高新月(1993- ),女,山东滨州人,硕士,研究方向为资源开发、区域规划与评价。 E-mail: 442627833@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0606100);国家自然科学基金项目(41771056,41427805);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-310-02)

Responses of variations of plant ornamental period to climate change in the west suburbs of Beijing from 1965-2014

Xinyue GAO1,2(), Junhu DAI1(), Mingqing ZHANG2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2018-06-29 Revised:2018-09-11 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-24
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

基于1965-2014年北京地区50种植物物候数据和同期日均温等气象资料,运用相关、回归分析法分析了北京地区绿叶观赏期、观花期和秋叶观赏期(开始日、结束日、时间长度)的变化趋势、变化形式及其对气候变化的响应情况。结果表明:① 北京西郊地区50种植物的绿叶观赏期为4月14日-10月15日,观赏期长度为163~219天。观花期为4月29日-5月17日,观花期长度为6~77天。秋叶观赏期为10月15日-11月14日,观赏期长度为16~41天。② 近50年来,北京西郊地区50种植物的3个观赏期都发生了一定程度的变化。绿叶观赏期开始日提前3.1天/10a,结束日推迟3.6天/10a,观赏期延长6.8天/10a。观花期开始日提前1.6天/10a,结束日提前0.5天/10a,观赏期延长1.2天/10a。秋叶观赏期开始日推迟3.6天/10a,结束日推迟1.1天/10a,观赏期缩短2.5天/10a。③ 绿叶观赏期延长主要表现为开始日提前,结束日推迟。观花期延长主要表现为开始日提前程度大于结束日提前程度,春花植物和夏花植物的观花期延长和缩短的表现形式基本一致。秋叶观赏期缩短主要表现为开始日推迟程度大于结束日推迟程度。④ 春季气温升高1 ℃,绿叶观赏期开始日提前3.9天、结束日推迟5.2天;观花期开始日提前3.4天,结束日提前1.9天。秋季气温升高1 ℃,秋叶观赏期开始日和结束日分别推迟5.2天和2.2天。⑤ 将不同观赏期重叠搭配可营造不同色彩和风格的植被景观,进而设计出不同特色的景观观赏主题。植物观赏期的变化可为园林景观创新设计提供有力参考,为植物观赏活动时间的安排提供科学依据。

关键词: 气候变化, 物候响应, 观赏期, 北京

Abstract:

Based on the phenological data of 50 plant species and the mean daily temperature data from 1965 to 2014, we analyzed the trend, the change patterns, and their response to climate change of ornamental period of leaf greenness, flowering, and leaf coloring and falling (beginning date, end date, and duration), respectively, by applying correlation and regression analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) For all the 50 plant species, the ornamental period of leaf greenness, flowering, and leaf coloring and falling was from April 14 to October 15, April 29 to May 17, October 15 to November 14, respectively. The duration ranged from 163 to 219 days for leaf greenness ornamental period, 6 to 77 days for flowering, 16 to 41 days for leaf coloring and falling. (2) During the study period, the beginning date exhibited an advancing trend of 3.1 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental activities and 1.6 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental activities, respectively, but a delaying trend of 3.6 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling ornamental activities. The end date exhibited a delaying trend of 3.6 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental activities and 1.1 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling ornamental activities, respectively, but advancing trend of 0.5 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental activities. The duration has extended by 6.8 days decade-1 for leaf greenness ornamental period and 1.2 days decade-1 for flowering ornamental periods, respectively, but shortened by 2.5 days decade-1 for leaf coloring and falling. (3) The extending leaf greenness ornamental period was caused by an earlier beginning date and a later end date. The extending flowering ornamental period was induced by a much earlier beginning date and a less earlier end date. The extending and shortening forms of flowering ornamental period of spring flowering plants were consistent with those of summer flowering plants. The shortening leaf coloring and falling ornamental period was induced by a much later beginning date and a less later end date. (4) The beginning date of ornamental periods of leaf greenness, the beginning and end dates of flowering ornamental period advanced by 3.9 days, 3.4 says and 1.9 days °C-1 in spring, respectively. However, the end date of ornamental period of leaf greenness delayed by 5.2 days °C-1 in spring. The beginning and end dates of ornamental period of leaf coloring and leaf falling delayed by 5.2 days and 2.2 days 1°C-1 in autumn. (5) By combining different phenophases, we identified landscape patterns with different colors and styles, and designed different landscape themes accordingly. Therefore, the study of changes of plant phenology provides a reference for both the innovative design of landscape and the arrangement of plant ornamental vacation.

Key words: climate change, phenological response, plant ornamental vacation, Beijing