1. College of Geographic Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China 2. Geospatial information technology and Application Key Laboratory of Qinghai Province, Xining 810008, China 3. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, the Center for Land Study, Peking University; Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China
Farmland non-agricultural conversion is a common phenomenon during urbanization and it has different influences on farmers. According to different situations, this study, from a perspective of farmers, examines farmers' value and attitudes of farmland non-agricultural conversion. A case study is from 812 households of 22 villages in Xining city. Four analytical frameworks of land acquisition degree, land development direction, spatial location and administrative region and 13 conditions are built. The results are showed as follows: (1) The farmers' value of farmland non-agricultural conversion varies from person to person; (2) The factors that affect the farmers' attitude toward expropriation and life satisfaction are complicated and diverse; (3) At different situations of cultivated land non-agricultural conversion, there are significant differences in farmers' perceptions on economic value, happiness, and attitude toward expropriation; (4) Increasing economic source is the major factor that affect farmers' satisfaction and attitude toward expropriation. Through this questionnaire research, we can attain the comprehensive acknowledge about the value of cultivated land. It is helpful for us to enrich and complete the land-use policies.
. 农户的耕地非农转换价值及态度模型——基于西宁市的实证研究[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(12): 2447-2458.
LIU Fenggui et al
. Farmers' value and attitude model of farmland non-agriculture conversion: A questionnaire from farmers in Xining city[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(12): 2447-2458.
Turner BL, Lambin EF, ReenbergA.The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability. , 2007, 104(52): 66-71.http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0609737104
To investigate the effect of RNA oxidation on normal cellular functions, we studied the translation of nonoxidized and oxidized luciferase mRNA in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and human HEK293 cells. When HEK293 cells transfected with nonoxidized mRNA encoding the firefly luciferase protein were cultured in the presence of paraquat, there was a paraquat concentration-dependent increase in the formation of luciferase short polypeptides (SPs) concomitant with an increase in 8-oxoguanosine. Short polypeptides were also formed when the mRNA was oxidized in vitro by the Fe-ascorbate-H metal-catalyzed oxidation system before its transfection into cells. Translation of the in vitro oxidized mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysate also led to formation of SPs. The SPs formed by either procedure contained the N-terminal and the C-terminal portions of the tagged luciferase. In addition, the oxidized mRNA was able to associate with ribosomes to form polysomes similar to those formed with nonoxidized mRNA preparations, indicating that the oxidized mRNAs are mostly intact; however, their translation fidelity was significantly reduced. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the SPs were derived from both premature termination of the translation process of the oxidized mRNA and the proteolytic degradation of the modified full-length luciferase resulting from translation errors induced by oxidized mRNA. In light of these findings, the physiological consequences of mRNA oxidation are discussed.
Meyer WB, Turner ⅡB L. . New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
ReenbergA.Agricultural land use pattern dynamics in the Sudan-Sahel-towards an event-driven framework. , 2001, 18(4): 309-319.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837701000205
While addressing the issue of field encroachment and land use pattern changes in the desert margin regions, the paper proposes to develop a model which recognises land use pattern changes as event-driven. The picture that underpins development efforts and policy papers for environmental improvement in the Sudan ahel region often describes changes in agricultural landscape systems as a unidirectional expansion of fields onto marginal land in response to population pressure and resource degradation. It is proposed that models of land use pattern trajectories as well as of resilience of land use systems have to recognise a strong random element related to unforeseeable events.
GortonM.Agricultural land reform in Moldova. , 2001, 18(3): 269-279.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837701000242
During transition, Moldova has pursued a policy of small-scale land privatisiation and a sucession of decollectivisation initiatives. Small-scale land reform has been important for bolstering the real incomes of rural households but living standards have continued to fall. While initial political resistance to decollectivisation has been overcome, serious challenges remain for co-ordinating agricultural production, procurement and marketing from a newly fragmented structure of land ownership. The delay in issuing formal land titles has inhibited the development of land market. The former large-scale collective and state farms provided several key social services in rural areas and the delivery of these services in the post-collectivised era also represents a serious challenge.
CoxheadI, JayasuriyaS.Technical change in agriculture and land degradation in developing countries: A general equilibrium analysis. , 1994, 70(1), 20-37.http://www.jstor.org/stable/3146438?origin=crossref
This paper analyzes the role of economic linkages between upland agriculture, lowland agriculture and other sectors in developing economies, and the potential for welfare-enhancing shifts from more to less erosive upland land use patterns. Comparative statics results are obtained from analytical and numerical general equilibrium models. They indicate that the green revolution in lowland agriculture helped alleviate upland land degradation, and that policies aimed at slowing land degradation through technical progress in upland crops may have the opposite of their intended effects. The results highlight the need for integrated policy packages to reduce upland land degradation in developing countries.
AngelS, ParentJ, Civco DL, et al.The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000-2050. , 2011, 75(2): 53-107.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0305900611000109
Our study of the expansion of a representative sample of 30 cities showed that 28 of them expanded more than 16-fold during the twentieth century. More generally, cities are now expanding at twice their population growth rates, on average, and now cover almost 0.5% of the planet's land area. We created a new dataset comprising the universe of all 3646 named metropolitan agglomerations and cities that had populations in excess of 100,000 in the year 2000, their populations in that year, and their built-up area identified in the in 2000 to 770,00002km in 2030 and to 1,200,00002km in 2050. Containing this expansion is likely to fail. Minimal preparations for accommodating it – realistic projection of urban land needs, the extension of metropolitan boundaries, acquiring the rights-of-way for an arterial road grid that can carry infrastructure and public transport, and the selective protection of open space from incursion by formal and informal land development – are now in order.
[CaiYunlong.Problems of farmland conservation in the rapid growth of China's economy. , 2000, 22(3): 24-28.]
TanMinghong, LiXiubin, LuChanghe.Urban land expansion and arable land loss of the major cities in China in the 1990s. Science in , 2005, 48(9): 1492-1500.http://22.214.171.124/article?code=03yd0374&jccode=08
Based on the land-use data in 1990 and 2000, determined by interpreting Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, this paper defines the extent of urban construction land, and extracts patches of urban construction land of 145 cities with the largest areas in 1990 and rable land patches around these cities. With these data, this paper analyzes the characteristics of rban construction land expansion and the consequent arable land loss in East, Middle and West China, and further identifies the social, economic and spatial factors of the urban land use changes, using GIS (Geographical Information System) and multivariate regression approaches. The results show that total urban land of the 145 cities expanded by 39.8%, with about 70% of the new urban land converted from arable land in the 1990s. The urban land expansion varied among the three regions, with a value of 43.0% in the East, 33.1% in the West (33.1%) and 17.8% in the Middle. Moreover, mean urban construction land per capita increased by10.7% in the East, but it decreased by 7.7% in the Middle, 1.4% in the West. Statistical analysis indicated that total wages of staff and workers could best explain the differences of urban land expansion.
[HeYanbing, HuangXiaojun, YangXinjun.Adaptation of land-lost farmers to rapid urbanizationin urban fringe: A case study of Xi'an. , 2017, 36(2): 226-240.]
ChengriDing.Policy and praxis of land acquisition in China. , 2007, 24(1): 1-13.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837705000530
Land acquisition is the primary means used by governments to meet increasing land demand driven by rapid economic and urban growth in China. Since development is prohibited on non-state-owned land, land acquisition in which landownership is converted from collective communes to the state shall take place prior to any land construction. This paper reviews institutional structure governing land acquisition in pre- and post-reform eras and examines consequences and impacts associated with or derived from land acquisition. It is concluded that land acquisition (1) has been used heavily by local governments to fuel urban development and finance infrastructure provision and (2) has resulted in increasing social tension and injustice that may impose a long-term threat to stability and sustainable development.
ChenRuisan, YeChao, CaiYunlong, et al.The impact of rural out-migration on land use transition in China: Past, present and trend. , 2014, 40(4): 101-110.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837713001981
Although rural out-migration has significantly transformed land use at the local to regional scale, the links between rural out-migration and land use change are not well understood. This paper connects Zelinsky's mobility transition model to land use transition theory and identifies the impacts of rural out-migration on land use transition. It then explores the significant influences of rural out-migration on land use transition in China. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has undergone rapid and significant changes. Extensive rural out-migration has transformed China from a land-attached agricultural society to an urban and industrial society. This has produced several contrasting land use trends: increased land demand in urban areas at the expense of high-quality cultivated land, increased number of total settlement areas and emerging “hollowed villages” in the countryside. China's policies addressing these problems could benefit to other developing countries, such as restricting frontier clearing through land zoning and other ecological protection policies; encouraging nonmigrants to adjust their agricultural land holdings; protecting nonmigrants’ interest through subsidizing agricultural land, and improving rural infrastructure and farmers’ living conditions. Rural out-migration is thus a critical element in addressing the fundamental question of land use—how to balance the land demand for economic development, food security and conservation. This article explores the impacts of rural out-migration on land use change, analyzes the process of migration and land use transition and then examines how rural out-migration affects land use transition in China. This paper also explores future land use change in China, by considering the trend of rural–urban migration and the dynamics of population transition. In so doing, we try to link current rural out-migration dynamics and land use change to facilitate future research and policy considerations. We propose that in order to facilitate policymaking, further research should take a multiscale perspective: cross-country research should be based on an understanding of the dynamics and issues of rural out-migration and land use change in developing countries with different characteristics; country-level research should focus on land use change and problems caused by rural out-migration and its spatial characteristics; and community and household-level research should examine the effects of out-migration of household or household members on agricultural and other land use change.
LiuYansui, FangFang, LiYuheng.Key issues of land use in China and implications for policy making. , 2014, 40(1): 6-12.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837713000598
The paper aims to comprehensively analyze key issues of current land use in China. It identifies the major land-use problems when China is undergoing rapid urbanization. Then, the paper interprets and assesses the related land-use policies: requisition-compensation balance of arable land, increasing vs. decreasing balance of urban-rural built land, reserved land system within land requisition, rural land consolidation and economical and intensive land use. The paper finds that current policies are targeting specific problems while being implemented in parallel. There is lacking a framework that incorporates all the policies. The paper finally indicates the current land-use challenges and proposes strategic land-use policy system to guide sustainable land use in the future.
Lambin EF, Turner BL, Geist HJ, et al.The causes of land-use and land-cover change: Moving beyond the myths. , 2001, 11(4): 261-269.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959378001000073
Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone constitute the sole and major underlying causes of land-cover change worldwide. Rather, peoples responses to economic opportunities, as mediated by institutional factors, drive land-cover changes. Opportunities and constraints for new land uses are created by local as well as national markets and policies. Global forces become the main determinants of land-use change, as they amplify or attenuate local factors.
QasimM, HubacekK, TermansenM.Underlying and proximate driving causes of land use change in district Swat, Pakistan. , 2013, 34(12): 146-157.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837713000434
Swat is part of the high mountain Hindu-Kush Himalayan region of Pakistan, with diverse biophysical and socio-economic characteristics. The region is endowed with many fragile and fragmented ecosystems, and land use and land cover changes have accelerated destructive processes with irreversible effects on ecosystems. The paper aims to (I) find proximate and underlying causes of land use and land cover changes; (2) analyse the drivers of change; and (3) reflect on the role of governance and policy.We used land use maps for the years 1968 and 2007 to highlight the extent and type of land use changes, and household surveys and expert interviews were conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data for detecting and analysing the drivers of change.Results of household surveys and expert interviews show that technological and environmental factors, accessibility and proximity to local markets, immense use of firewood, conflicting property rights and other institutional weaknesses, and over-grazing of alpine pastures were the main driving forces for agriculture expansion and deforestation.Given the present governance structure of forest management in Pakistan a multi-sectoral and multi-scale framework is required to conserve the Swat's natural landscape and associated ecosystem services. A carefully crafted reform programme is required to clarify and assign unambiguous property rights, provisions for communal management and market-based incentives, depending on the social, economic, and ecological characteristics of the different zones under consideration. Only with such policies in place can the current rapid rate of deforestation be avoided and sustainable natural resources use be ensured. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[AnYue, ZhouGuohua, HeYanhua.Research on the functional zoning and regulation of rural areas based on the production-life-ecological function perspective: A case study of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area. , 2018, 37(4): 695-703.]