地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (12): 2459-2474.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201812008

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

山区县域聚落演化的空间分异特征及其影响因素——以豫西山地嵩县为例

段小薇1,2(), 李小建1,2()   

  1. 1. 河南财经政法大学资源与环境学院,城乡协调发展河南省协同创新中心, 郑州 450046
    2. 河南大学环境与规划学院,黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心, 开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-15 修回日期:2018-09-05 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:段小薇(1989- ),女,河南嵩县人,讲师,研究方向为城乡发展。E-mail: xwduan99@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471117,41501134,41601178);教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大项目(16 JJD770021)

Spatial differentiation and its influencing factors of settlements evolution in mountainous counties: A case study of Songxian county in western Henan province

Xiaowei DUAN1,2(), Xiaojian LI1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environment / Collaborative Innovation Center of Urban-Rural Coordinated Development in Henan Province, Henan University of Economics and law, Zhengzhou 450046, China
    2. College of Environment & Planning / Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China;
  • Received:2018-06-15 Revised:2018-09-05 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-24
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

综合运用GIS空间分析、地形起伏度和地形位指数等方法,分析了1975-2015年嵩县聚落演化的空间分异特征,进而运用因子分析、地理探测器和多元回归分析方法研究了影响因素及其变化。得出:① 40年间嵩县聚落数量减少了将近四分之一,而聚落总规模增加1.28倍,其数量减少量以1975-1995年阶段居多,规模扩张程度以1995-2015年阶段更为显著。② 受山区地形限制聚落在空间上多沿道路和河流呈条带状分布,沿县城和乡镇中心呈团状分布,且随时间变化具有很强的路径依赖性;聚落空间分布呈现明显的低地、小地形起伏、平缓坡度和小地形位指向性,且随时间趋于向丘陵、平起伏和微起伏、坡度<6°、地形位指数<0.4地区布局;此外,聚落区位的南坡指向性和聚落规模空间分布的南坡、东南坡和西南坡指向性趋于加强。③ 聚落区位主要受地形、生产条件以及道路、乡镇中心、县城中心和工矿企业的辐射影响,但随时间变化,地形影响在减弱,而道路和乡镇中心的辐射影响在增强。④ 聚落规模空间分布受自然、社会和经济等方面因子的解释作用均较为显著并随时间有所变化,其中,地形的影响相对较大,社会经济因子中乡镇和县城中心的影响次之;但随城镇化进程的不断加快,县城中心的影响逐渐增强,而乡镇中心和地形的影响逐渐减弱。基于以上研究为山区聚落未来选址及规划布局提出几点建议。

关键词: 山区聚落, 聚落演变, 聚落区位, 城镇化, 豫西山地, 嵩县

Abstract:

Combining GIS spatial analysis, topographic relief degree, terrain niche index and other methods, this paper analyzes the spatial differentiation of settlements evolution in Songxian, based on the settlement patches data of the county in 1975, 1995 and 2015. We then examine their influencing factors as well as their changes by using factor analysis, geographic detector and multiple regression analysis method. The results showed that: (1) The number of settlements decreased nearly a quarter while their scale increased more than 1.2 times over the past 40 years, however, the number during 1975-1995 reduced more than that from 1995 to 2015, while the scale expansion was more significant during the period 1995-2015. (2) Restricted by mountain topography, the settlements were mainly distributed along the main roads and rivers like ribbons, as well as distributed along the county seat and township sites forming massive texture, and their evolution followed strong path dependence; The settlements tended to be located on low land, smaller topography, gentle slope and small relief, or more settlements concentrated in the hilly region, flat and slightly undulating topography, and the areas where the slope degree is less than 6° and the terrain niche index less than 0.4. In addition, the south slope directivity of settlements' location and the south slope, southeast slope and southwest slope directivity of settlement scale's spatial distribution was gradually strengthened. (3) The location of settlements was mainly affected by topography, production conditions and the radiation effects of roads, town centers, township sites as well as proximity to industrial and mining enterprises. However, with the passage of time, the effects of topography were weakened while the impact of roads and township centers was gradually strengthened. (4) The spatial distribution of settlements scale was obviously affected by natural, social and economic factors, but the explanation effect of each factor changes over time; Among them, the influence of topography standed at the top, followed by the distance to township sites and county seat in social economic factors, but with the accelerating process of urbanization, the influence of the county center was gradually strengthened, while the influence of township sites and terrains was gradually weakened. Finally, based on the above research, some suggestions were proposed for future development and planning of the mountainous rural settlements.

Key words: mountainous settlements, settlement evolution, settlement location, urbanization, the mountainous region of western Henan province, Songxian county