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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (12): 2459-2474     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201812008
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
山区县域聚落演化的空间分异特征及其影响因素——以豫西山地嵩县为例
段小薇1,2(),李小建1,2()
1. 河南财经政法大学资源与环境学院,城乡协调发展河南省协同创新中心, 郑州 450046
2. 河南大学环境与规划学院,黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心, 开封 475004
Spatial differentiation and its influencing factors of settlements evolution in mountainous counties: A case study of Songxian county in western Henan province
DUAN Xiaowei1,2(),LI Xiaojian1,2()
1. School of Resources and Environment / Collaborative Innovation Center of Urban-Rural Coordinated Development in Henan Province, Henan University of Economics and law, Zhengzhou 450046, China
2. College of Environment & Planning / Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China;
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摘要 

综合运用GIS空间分析、地形起伏度和地形位指数等方法,分析了1975-2015年嵩县聚落演化的空间分异特征,进而运用因子分析、地理探测器和多元回归分析方法研究了影响因素及其变化。得出:① 40年间嵩县聚落数量减少了将近四分之一,而聚落总规模增加1.28倍,其数量减少量以1975-1995年阶段居多,规模扩张程度以1995-2015年阶段更为显著。② 受山区地形限制聚落在空间上多沿道路和河流呈条带状分布,沿县城和乡镇中心呈团状分布,且随时间变化具有很强的路径依赖性;聚落空间分布呈现明显的低地、小地形起伏、平缓坡度和小地形位指向性,且随时间趋于向丘陵、平起伏和微起伏、坡度<6°、地形位指数<0.4地区布局;此外,聚落区位的南坡指向性和聚落规模空间分布的南坡、东南坡和西南坡指向性趋于加强。③ 聚落区位主要受地形、生产条件以及道路、乡镇中心、县城中心和工矿企业的辐射影响,但随时间变化,地形影响在减弱,而道路和乡镇中心的辐射影响在增强。④ 聚落规模空间分布受自然、社会和经济等方面因子的解释作用均较为显著并随时间有所变化,其中,地形的影响相对较大,社会经济因子中乡镇和县城中心的影响次之;但随城镇化进程的不断加快,县城中心的影响逐渐增强,而乡镇中心和地形的影响逐渐减弱。基于以上研究为山区聚落未来选址及规划布局提出几点建议。

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段小薇
李小建
关键词 山区聚落聚落演变聚落区位城镇化豫西山地嵩县 
Abstract

Combining GIS spatial analysis, topographic relief degree, terrain niche index and other methods, this paper analyzes the spatial differentiation of settlements evolution in Songxian, based on the settlement patches data of the county in 1975, 1995 and 2015. We then examine their influencing factors as well as their changes by using factor analysis, geographic detector and multiple regression analysis method. The results showed that: (1) The number of settlements decreased nearly a quarter while their scale increased more than 1.2 times over the past 40 years, however, the number during 1975-1995 reduced more than that from 1995 to 2015, while the scale expansion was more significant during the period 1995-2015. (2) Restricted by mountain topography, the settlements were mainly distributed along the main roads and rivers like ribbons, as well as distributed along the county seat and township sites forming massive texture, and their evolution followed strong path dependence; The settlements tended to be located on low land, smaller topography, gentle slope and small relief, or more settlements concentrated in the hilly region, flat and slightly undulating topography, and the areas where the slope degree is less than 6° and the terrain niche index less than 0.4. In addition, the south slope directivity of settlements' location and the south slope, southeast slope and southwest slope directivity of settlement scale's spatial distribution was gradually strengthened. (3) The location of settlements was mainly affected by topography, production conditions and the radiation effects of roads, town centers, township sites as well as proximity to industrial and mining enterprises. However, with the passage of time, the effects of topography were weakened while the impact of roads and township centers was gradually strengthened. (4) The spatial distribution of settlements scale was obviously affected by natural, social and economic factors, but the explanation effect of each factor changes over time; Among them, the influence of topography standed at the top, followed by the distance to township sites and county seat in social economic factors, but with the accelerating process of urbanization, the influence of the county center was gradually strengthened, while the influence of township sites and terrains was gradually weakened. Finally, based on the above research, some suggestions were proposed for future development and planning of the mountainous rural settlements.

Key wordsmountainous settlements    settlement evolution    settlement location    urbanization    the mountainous region of western Henan province    Songxian county
收稿日期: 2018-06-15      出版日期: 2018-12-24
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41471117,41501134,41601178);教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大项目(16 JJD770021)
引用本文:   
段小薇, 李小建 . 山区县域聚落演化的空间分异特征及其影响因素——以豫西山地嵩县为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(12): 2459-2474.
DUAN Xiaowei, LI Xiaojian . Spatial differentiation and its influencing factors of settlements evolution in mountainous counties: A case study of Songxian county in western Henan province[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(12): 2459-2474.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201812008      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I12/2459
Fig. 1  研究区范围
Fig. 2  1975-2015年嵩县聚落区位和密度空间分布图
Fig. 3  1975-1995年和1995-2015年嵩县聚落斑块空间变化
Fig. 4  1975-2015年嵩县聚落规模密度和冷热点分布图
地形因素 分级 占比(%) 聚落扩展指数(%)
1975年 1995年 2015年 两阶段
数量 面积 数量 面积 数量 面积 1995-1975年 2015-1995年
高程 丘陵 26.27 53.87 28.09 59.50 28.29 61.52 3.098 3.647
低山 65.83 43.38 66.07 39.49 66.09 37.35 0.551 0.680
中山 7.91 2.75 5.84 1.01 5.62 1.13 -0.087 0.074
地形起伏度 平坦起伏 2.45 9.68 2.21 10.96 2.17 11.54 5.270 2.632
微起伏 40.81 61.65 43.59 66.39 45.09 67.83 2.466 3.386
小起伏 54.70 28.00 52.75 22.29 51.55 20.35 0.186 0.300
中起伏 2.05 0.68 1.45 0.36 1.18 0.28 -0.018 0.011
坡度 0°~6° 35.07 61.14 36.29 65.66 37.73 68.13 3.502 4.337
6°~15° 49.45 33.46 50.63 31.22 49.72 28.94 0.660 0.713
15°~25° 15.04 5.28 12.79 3.07 12.42 2.90 -0.023 0.091
25°~35° 0.45 0.13 0.29 0.05 0.12 0.02 -0.012 -0.006
35°~62° 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
地形位指数 0~0.2 1.41 7.83 0.70 12.32 0.87 13.59 1.019 12.664
0.2~0.4 34.88 58.83 36.52 59.76 38.54 60.76 3.878 3.000
0.4~0.6 45.73 27.72 48.59 25.08 47.20 23.21 0.593 0.683
0.6~0.8 17.53 5.52 13.87 2.81 13.17 2.41 -0.053 0.051
0.8~1 0.45 0.10 0.32 0.025 0.22 0.035 -0.008 0.005
1~1.21 0 0 0 0 0
Tab. 1  1975-2015年不同地形条件下嵩县聚落数量和斑块面积占比及斑块规模扩展指数
Fig. 5  不同地形、道路、河流、县城和乡镇中心影响范围内聚落分布差异及变化
图a~图e中,Count表示聚落数量,PD表示聚落密度;图f~图i中N为各缓冲内的聚落个数,PN为聚落个数累计叠加比例,COUNTBZ为各缓冲区下聚落数量相对比例。
Fig. 6  不同地形、道路、河流、县城和乡镇中心影响范围内聚落规模分布及其变化
图a~图d中Area代表聚落斑块面积,PA代表平均聚落斑块面积;图f~图i中A为各缓冲内的聚落斑块面积,PM为聚落面积累计叠加比例,AReaBZ为各缓冲区下聚落面积相对比例。
年份 因子 相关性较高的变量 表征
1975年 1 地形起伏(X2)、坡度(X3)和地形位(X4 地形的影响作用
2 道路可达性(X6)和乡镇中心可达性(X9 道路和乡镇中心的辐射作用
3 劳动力(X13)和耕地面积(X14 生产条件
4 县城中心可达性(X8 县城的辐射作用
1995年 1 县城可达性(X8)、工矿企业可达性(X10 县城中心和工矿企业的辐射作用
2 坡度(X3)和地形位(X4 地形的影响作用
3 道路可达性(X6)和乡镇中心可达性(X9 道路和乡镇中心的辐射作用
4 劳动力(X13)和耕地面积(X14 生产条件
2015年 1 道路可达性(X6)、乡镇中心可达性(X9)和工矿企业可达性(X10 道路、乡镇中心和工矿企业的辐射作用
2 地形起伏(X2)、坡度(X3)和地形位(X4 地形的影响作用
3 劳动力(X13)和耕地面积(X14 生产条件
4 县城中心可达性(X8 县城的辐射作用
Tab. 2  1975年、1995年和2015年三个时期聚落区位选址主要影响因子
指标 1975年 1995年 2015年
q statistic p value q statistic p value q statistic p value
X1 0.1071 0.000 0.0761 0.000 0.0349 0.000
X2 0.1357 0.000 0.1272 0.000 0.0460 0.000
X3 0.0833 0.000 0.0592 0.000 0.0257 0.000
X4 0.1637 0.000 0.1308 0.000 0.1393 0.000
X5 0.0101 0.000 0.0190 0.000 0.0066 0.0196
X6 0.0531 0.000 0.0263 0.000 0.0212 0.0034
X7 0.0137 0.000 0.0144 0.000 0.0103 0.0173
X8 0.1126 0.000 0.1012 0.000 0.1433 0.000
X9 0.0980 0.000 0.0637 0.000 0.0469 0.000
X10 0.0355 0.000 0.0446 0.000 0.0329 0.000
X11 0.8106 0.000 0.9519 0.000 0.7284 0.000
X12 0.8002 0.000 0.9395 0.000 0.7244 0.000
X13 0.7307 0.000 0.9282 0.000 0.2954 0.000
X14 0.4855 0.000 0.3936 0.000 0.2573 0.000
X15 0.3463 0.000 0.2537 0.000 - -
X16 0.6967 0.000 0.6395 0.000 - -
X17 0.1080 0.000 0.1781 0.000 - -
X18 - - 0.4416 0.000 0.2429 0.000
X19 - - 0.4833 0.000 0.2722 0.000
X20 - - 0.4532 0.000 0.2398 0.000
X21 - - 0.5273 0.000 0.2692 0.000
Tab. 3  三个时期嵩县聚落规模空间分布影响因子地理探测器分析结果
年份 变量 系数 t Sig. VIF
非标准化系数 标准化系数
1975年 (常量) 59830.72 28.903 0.000***
X2 -77.602 -0.11 -5.454 0.000*** 2.032
X4 -62745.609 -0.261 -11.896 0.000*** 2.422
X5 -2.55 -0.007 -0.465 0.642 1.032
X6 -0.002 0 -0.008 0.993 1.526
X7 -0.313 -0.004 -0.243 0.808 1.049
X8 -90.582 -0.038 -2.304 0.021** 1.378
X9 -477.239 -0.067 -3.744 0.000*** 1.62
X10 -0.005 -0.001 -0.081 0.935 1.315
1995年 (常量) 133356.809 22.096 0.000***
X2 -227.895 -0.12 -5.469 0.000*** 1.871
X4 -140045.388 -0.209 -8.766 0.000*** 2.221
X5 -10.483 -0.011 -0.646 0.519 1.04
X6 0.31 0.008 0.42 0.674 1.477
X7 1.319 0.023 1.363 0.173 1.073
X8 -389.179 -0.063 -3.036 0.002*** 1.663
X9 -1088.241 -0.058 -2.832 0.005*** 1.653
X10 0.037 0.003 0.138 0.89 1.816
2015年 (常量) 221556.591 14.302 0.000***
X2 -303.476 -0.064 -2.771 0.006*** 1.825
X4 -243319.58 -0.151 -5.903 0.000*** 2.228
X5 -29.317 -0.012 -0.695 0.487 1.035
X6 0.279 0.003 0.129 0.897 1.518
X7 2.17 0.017 0.912 0.362 1.129
X8 -691.442 -0.046 -2.434 0.015** 1.233
X9 -1060.192 -0.023 -1.045 0.296 1.699
X10 -1.756 -0.027 -1.222 0.222 1.635
Tab. 4  三个时期聚落规模影响因素多元回归分析结果
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