Rural settlement reconstructing driven by mountain scenic spot construction: An empirical study of Yunqiu Mountain Scenic Spot
ZHU He1(),LIU Jiaming1,2
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China 2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Under the background of rural tourism development, great changes have taken place in traditional village, especially in mountainous areas. Influenced by natural environment and resources, the reconstruction of these villages appeared to be unique and typical. This study was conducted based on in-depth interview and questionnaire survey, and remote sensing image interpretation and GIS analysis. It, taking two villages in Yunqiu Mount as cases, focused on multidimensional reconstruction process of rural settlements from micro scale, and gained some findings as follows: driven by the tourist site constructiion, the three dimensions of "space-economy-society" in the two villages in Yunqiu Mountain have been reconstructed. At the spatial dimension, the land use status and the scale of the three basic space have changed, specifically, production space and living space reduced, and the ecology space increased. The spatial pattern changes from a circular pattern of "living-production-ecology" to a model in which living and production spaces are embedded in the ecology space. At the economic dimension, the income of the villagers increased, and their livelihood model changed. The increasing industrial dependence on tourism has replaced the traditional production mode. At the social dimension, the population and the labor force has increased significantly, the spatial differences of social classes have been narrowed, and the rural organization gradually has shifted to the mode of tourism production. There exists an interaction between space, society, and culture in the countryside, thus an organic system is formed under the promotion of tourism development in the scenic spot.
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61We examine the spatial distribution of rural settlements in China at counties and town scale.61Rural settlements were denser in southeastern regions than in northwestern regions in China.61Rural settlements distribution was influenced by tradition and the economy, with economic development becoming increasingly influential.61The typical patterns of village-town system for rural settlements optimizing reconstruction include four modes.
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This study investigates the rural settlement density, size, and spatial distribution in China using land use vector maps extracted from Landsat TM images. The patch density (PD), mean patch size (MPS), standard deviation of patch size (SD), Euclidian mean nearest neighbor distance (MNN), and area weighted mean patch fractal dimension (AWMPFD) were calculated by GIS software to measure the characteristics of about 7.56 105 rural settlements. The results indicate that rural residential settlements in China were small with MPS of only 16.27ha, and more than half of them were below 10ha. China is divided into seven regions and the regional disparity is investigated across the seven regions, as well as within each region. The relationship between PD and digital elevation model (DEM), annual mean temperature and annual mean precipitation was investigated at the two levels. While DEM had a negative impact on PD, the annual mean temperature and precipitation had a mixed impact on the PD. In Northeastern China, North China Plain, Middle and Lower Yangtze River Plain, Inner Mongolia Plateau, Loess Plateau, and Southwestern China, the annual mean temperature had a strong positive impact on PD, but in the Southeastern China, no apparent correlation was found. While a significantly positive correlation between PD and annual mean precipitation was found in Inner Mongolia Plateau and Loess Plateau, a negative relation was found in Southeastern China and Southwestern China, and no obvious relationship found between them in Northeastern China, North China Plain, Middle and Lower Yangtze River Plain. In Northwestern China and Tibet Plateau, there was no apparent relationship between PD and annual mean temperature and annual mean precipitation. The results also demonstrate that annual mean temperature and annual mean precipitation did not have as much impact on MPS of rural settlements as topography and DEM. Rural settlements are impacted more by the topography and climatic parameters than are urban areas, as rural populations are more dependent on agriculture. The relationship between rural settlements and climatic parameters reflects the climatic impact on human living environment and food availability and productivity.
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Migration patterns, technological developments, and altered human and relationships are combining to precipitate tremendous changes in rural communities across the western US. These processes of restructuring, however, have been quite contentious and divisive for many of the region's small towns. While we are beginning to understand the causes of recent growth and development trends, the consequences of contemporary forces of restructuring on communities remain unstudied. This paper explores the reactions of residents to forces of restructuring in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, the Methow Valley, Washington, Kane County, Utah, and Teton Valley, Idaho. In depth interviews and survey responses give voice to community members by allowing them to articulate their perceptions and interpretations of recent events. The analyses demonstrate tremendous diversity in the ways in which individuals interpret the changes taking place around them. These diverse interpretations challenge singular conceptions of community and highlight the ways in which notions of land use, family, and class are negotiated in the context of contemporary rural restructuring. The analysis further demonstrates the need for a more synthesized field of rural studies spanning disciplinary and national divides.
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The analysis presented here concerns the influence of housing construction on spatial systems and the physiognomy of rural settlements serving various economic functions. In addition, the study offers an assessment of the influence new construction is having on the living conditions experienced by country-dwellers and the appearance and aesthetics characterising rural settlements. Particular attention is paid to modern housing construction, which only began to flourish in Poland in the period of economic transformation. A basis for the work has been provided by detailed research (field surveys, questionnaires and interviews) carried out in 15 villages located in Lublin voivodeship, eastern Poland. Changes in the spatial structure of villages under the influence of the new building are presented by reference to three villages representative of the residential, tourist-recreational and agricultural functional types. The post-1989 process of economic transformation has magnified spatial differences as regards the kind of new housing construction taking place in rural areas. The intensity at which new building is taking place is very much a function of the size of the adjacent urban centre and the area's distance from it. Housing construction concentrates close to the main transport arteries, along which a belt of enhanced economic activity is to be found. Pressure from new investors is giving rise to a transformation of the natural environment, as well to the appearance of new conflicts between agriculture and housing. The development of new styles of building has led to changes in traditional configuration of villages.
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In order to evaluate the effect of Grain for Green Policy in the reach from Hekouzhen to Tongguan of the Yellow River, based on dryness/wetness, geomorphic type, slope gradient and aspect, from macroscopic to microcosmic, three indicators, including (a) a land use change significance index, (b) a land use change proportion (c) a vegetation change index, are used to characterize the primary transformation types, the intensity of land use changes, and the degree of vegetation restoration in the period 1998-2010. The results show that: (1) The area of land use change accounted for 19.19% of the study area. High coverage grassland, forest, and other woodland increased significantly, while low coverage grassland, farmland decreased markedly. (2) Spatially, land use change was found primarily west of the Yellow River, between 35 and 38 degrees north latitude, including Malian River basin, Beiluo River basin, Yanhe River basin. (3) The transformation types, including low coverage grassland to moderate coverage grassland, moderate coverage grassland to high coverage grassland, farmland to other woodland, shrub to forest were the primary types resulting from land use change. (4) The effect of dryness/wetness, geomorphic type and slope gradient on land use change was significant, but that of aspect on land use change was not so clear.