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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (12): 2490-2502     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201812010
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
山岳型景区建设下乡村聚落的多维重构——基于云丘山旅游景区微观案例的实证研究
朱鹤1(),刘家明1,2
1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京,10049
Rural settlement reconstructing driven by mountain scenic spot construction: An empirical study of Yunqiu Mountain Scenic Spot
ZHU He1(),LIU Jiaming1,2
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要 

随着乡村旅游的快速发展,传统乡村发生了巨大变化,尤其在山区地区,受自然环境、资源条件的影响,其乡村聚落的重构更具有独特性和典型性。采取深度访谈、全样本问卷调查、遥感影像解译与GIS分析等方法,以云丘山旅游景区中的两个自然村落为例,从微观尺度研究乡村聚落的多维重构过程,研究发现,在景区建设推动下,云丘山景区内两个村的“空间—经济—社会”三个维度均发生了重构:空间层次上,土地利用状况和三生空间的规模均发生变化,生产、生活空间减少,生态空间增加,空间格局上从“生活—生产—生态”的环状模式转变为生活、生产空间在生态空间中镶嵌的模式;经济层次上,村民的收入提升,生计模式发生改变,对旅游业的产业依赖度升高,传统生产模式改变;社会层次上,人口回流,劳动力显著增加,社会阶层的空间差异被打破,乡村组织方式逐渐向旅游生产方式上转变。乡村的“空间—经济—社会”多维重构之间存在相互影响关系,在景区旅游发展的推动下形成新的乡村地域系统。

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朱鹤
刘家明
关键词 景区乡村聚落多维重构云丘山 
Abstract

Under the background of rural tourism development, great changes have taken place in traditional village, especially in mountainous areas. Influenced by natural environment and resources, the reconstruction of these villages appeared to be unique and typical. This study was conducted based on in-depth interview and questionnaire survey, and remote sensing image interpretation and GIS analysis. It, taking two villages in Yunqiu Mount as cases, focused on multidimensional reconstruction process of rural settlements from micro scale, and gained some findings as follows: driven by the tourist site constructiion, the three dimensions of "space-economy-society" in the two villages in Yunqiu Mountain have been reconstructed. At the spatial dimension, the land use status and the scale of the three basic space have changed, specifically, production space and living space reduced, and the ecology space increased. The spatial pattern changes from a circular pattern of "living-production-ecology" to a model in which living and production spaces are embedded in the ecology space. At the economic dimension, the income of the villagers increased, and their livelihood model changed. The increasing industrial dependence on tourism has replaced the traditional production mode. At the social dimension, the population and the labor force has increased significantly, the spatial differences of social classes have been narrowed, and the rural organization gradually has shifted to the mode of tourism production. There exists an interaction between space, society, and culture in the countryside, thus an organic system is formed under the promotion of tourism development in the scenic spot.

Key wordsscenic spot    rural settlement    multidimension reconstruction    Yunqiu mountain
收稿日期: 2018-07-23      出版日期: 2018-12-24
基金资助:国家自然科学基金重点项目(41731286);国家自然科学基金青年项目(41801139)
引用本文:   
朱鹤, 刘家明 . 山岳型景区建设下乡村聚落的多维重构——基于云丘山旅游景区微观案例的实证研究[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(12): 2490-2502.
ZHU He, LIU Jiaming . Rural settlement reconstructing driven by mountain scenic spot construction: An empirical study of Yunqiu Mountain Scenic Spot[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(12): 2490-2502.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201812010      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I12/2490
Fig. 1  案例地
功能类型 空间含义 土地利用分类
生产空间 以生产功能(农业生产、工业生产、服务业生产)为主的乡村空间[20,27] 耕地、园地、经济林用地、旅游服务用地(旅游设施、旅游活动用地)、交通运输用地等
生活空间 乡村居民的日常生活(休闲、消费、居住等)的场所空间[28] 村民居住宅基地、公共管理与公共服务用地等
生态空间 村落周边具有生态服务功能的环境[20] 保护林地、荒地、滩涂、隔离带、水体等
Tab. 1  乡村空间划分方法
Fig. 2  2005年和2017年案例区的土地利用状况
Fig. 3  三生空间转换流向图
Fig. 4  三生空间格局特征
塔尔坡村 康家坪村
人均年收入(元) 生计多样化指数 农业依赖度 旅游业依赖度 人均年收入(元) 生计多样化指数 农业依赖度 旅游业依赖度
2005年 1 543 1.33 0.53 0.01a 1833 1.31 0.47 0.00
2017年 8 625 1.72 0.12 0.68 8427 1.58 0.15 0.45
Tab. 2  2005年、2017年塔尔坡和康家坪两村的经济特征
塔尔坡 康家坪
实际人口数量(人) 劳动年龄人口占比(%) 实际人口数量(人) 劳动年龄人口占比(%)
2005年 137.5 21.68 57.3 20.14
2017年 213.0 42.45 89.7 39.21
Tab. 3  2005年、2017塔尔坡和康家坪两村的社会人口特征
Fig. 5  村民住房状况对比示意图
Fig. 6  乡村聚落重构的多维关系
Fig. 7  围绕旅游产业形成的乡村地域系统
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