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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (12): 2503-2516     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201812011
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
旅游小企业成长路径及其驱动机制——以世界文化遗产地宏村为例
尹寿兵1,2(),郭强1,2,刘云霞1,2
1. 安徽师范大学地理与旅游学院,芜湖 241002
2. 安徽师范大学旅游发展与规划研究中心,芜湖 241002
The growth path and mechanism of small tourism businesses: Taking world cultural heritage site Hongcun as an example
YIN Shoubing1,2(),GUO Qiang1,2,LIU Yunxia1,2
1. College of Geography and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, Anhui, China
2. Center for Tourism Planning and Research, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, Anhui, China
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摘要 

以世界文化遗产地宏村为例,借助企业成长理论,采用深度访谈和非参与观察等研究方法,探求遗产地旅游小企业成长路径及其驱动机制。宏村旅游小企业的创立、发展、退出是一个动态的过程。在企业家精神和市场需求双重因素作用下,社区居民利用民居开展经营,实现了身份转化和场所转变,创立了旅游小企业。发展过程中,受遗产保护限制和市场竞争压力,旅游小企业主群体分化,成长意愿不足的小企业主通过租售退出市场,推动新的小企业创立;具有成长意愿的旅游小企业通过模仿创新、代际传承、连锁扩张、抱团经营和品牌加盟等路径实现企业成长。研究发现,一体化、多元化、跟随、抱团等企业成长战略,以及家族企业的内部传承等共同构成了旅游小企业成长路径;同时,遗产保护、市场消费升级等旅游发展因素驱动了旅游小企业成长的循环更新。

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尹寿兵
郭强
刘云霞
关键词 旅游小企业企业成长宏村 
Abstract

Taking the world heritage site of Hongcun as an example, with the help of enterprise growth theory, in-depth interviews and non participation observation methods are applied to explore the growth path and driving mechanism of heritage site small tourism businesses. The creation, development and withdrawal of small tourism enterprises in Hongcun are a dynamic process. Under the dual factors of entrepreneurial spirit and market demand, community residents managed to make use of their dwellings to achieve identity transformation and place change, and established small tourism businesses. In the course of development, the limitation of heritage protection and the pressure of market competition make the differentiation of the main group of the small tourism enterprises. Small business owners who lack of growth will withdraw from the market by sublease, which will promote the creation of new small enterprises. Small tourism enterprises with growth will achieve enterprise growth through imitating innovation, intergenerational inheritance, chain expansion, cluster management and brand joining. The study found that integration, diversification, follow ups and corporate growth strategies together with the internal succession of family businesses constitute the growth path of small tourism businesses. At the same time, the tourism development factors such as the heritage protection and the market consumption upgrade have driven the circulation of the growth of the small tourism enterprises.

Key wordssmall tourism enterprises    enterprise growth    Hongcun
收稿日期: 2018-06-16      出版日期: 2018-12-24
基金资助:项目基金:国家自然科学基金项目(41501164,41301159);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(14YJCZH105);安徽师范大学博士科研启动项目(2014bsqdjj46)
引用本文:   
尹寿兵, 郭强, 刘云霞 . 旅游小企业成长路径及其驱动机制——以世界文化遗产地宏村为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(12): 2503-2516.
YIN Shoubing, GUO Qiang, LIU Yunxia . The growth path and mechanism of small tourism businesses: Taking world cultural heritage site Hongcun as an example[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(12): 2503-2516.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201812011      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I12/2503
企业成长理论 代表性学者 代表性理论 主要观点
企业外生
成长理论
Nelson等[25] 新古典经济学
的企业成长理论
企业成长就是企业调整产量达到最优规模的过程
Williamson[26] 新制度经济学
的企业成长理论
企业是市场机制的替代,节约市场交易费用是企业成长的动力
Porter[27] 波特的企业
竞争优势理论
企业应该对市场环境作出分析,确定其竞争战略,进而增进企业的竞争优势
企业内生
成长理论
Penrose[8] 彭罗斯的
内生成长理论
管理资源是企业成长的最重要的限制因素,企业成长的前提是增加相应的管理资源
Marris[28]
Williamson[29]
管理者理论 企业的目标由追求企业所有者利润最大化,转变为追求管理者阶层自身的效用最大化
Chandler[30] 制度变迁理论 企业多角化和纵向一体化是现代企业成长的主要策略
Prahalad等[31]
Barney[32]
资源基础理论 企业内部的资源、知识和能力决定了企业成长的方向和模式
杨杜[33] 学习型组织理论 企业内部的学习和发展机制是企业长期进步和发展的关键
Tab. 1  企业成长理论及主要观点
开业年 企业数(个) 百分比(%) 累积百分比(%) 开业年 企业数(个) 百分比(%) 累积百分比(%)
2001 5 1.04 1.04 2009 17 3.52 38.71
2002 14 2.90 3.94 2010 52 10.76 49.47
2003 12 2.48 6.42 2011 42 8.70 58.17
2004 51 10.56 16.98 2012 47 9.73 67.90
2005 19 3.93 20.91 2013 41 8.50 76.40
2006 19 3.93 24.84 2014 36 7.45 83.85
2007 29 6.00 30.84 2015 67 13.87 97.72
2008 21 4.35 35.19 2016(1-2月) 11 2.28 100.0
合计 483 100.0
Tab. 2  宏村旅游小企业开业时间调查表
编号 企业类型 企业位置 开业年 业主性别 业主年龄(岁) 业主学历 业主籍贯
A01 客栈民宿 上水圳 1997 30~44 大专 宏村本地
A02 客栈民宿 月沼 1997 30~44 高中 宏村本地
A03 饮品小吃店 商业街 1998 30~44 本科 宏村本地
A04 鞋服店 工艺品市场 1999 45~59 初中及以下 黟县非宏村
A05 客栈民宿 茶行弄 2000 30~44 高中 宏村本地
A06 旅游餐馆 水墨宏村 2000 30~44 初中及以下 宏村本地
A07 旅游纪念品店 后街 2004 60及以上 高中 宏村本地
A08 客栈民宿 沿河路 2006 45~59 初中及以下 宏村本地
A09 茶叶店 茶行弄 2006 30~44 初中及以下 宏村本地
A10 客栈民宿 南湖 2006 18~29 大专 宏村本地
A11 茶叶店 工艺品市场 2007 45~59 初中及以下 黟县非宏村
A12 鞋服店 商业街 2009 30~44 初中及以下 宏村本地
A13 客栈民宿 前街 2011 18~29 大专 宏村本地
A14 客栈民宿 直街 2011 30~44 高中 宏村本地
A15 饮品小吃店 商业街 2012 45~59 高中 浙江湖州
A16 茶叶店 东边井 2012 18~29 大专 宏村本地
A17 茶叶店 商业街 2012 30~44 高中 宏村本地
A18 旅游餐馆 上水圳 2012 30~44 高中 宏村本地
A19 客栈民宿 中街 2012 45~59 大专 宏村本地
A20 客栈民宿 水墨宏村 2012 30~44 初中及以下 宏村本地
A21 客栈民宿 东边井 2012 30~44 高中 黟县非宏村
A22 旅游纪念品店 上水圳 2013 18~29 高中 黄山非黟县
A23 客栈民宿 后街 2014 30~44 大专 宏村本地
A24 客栈民宿 东边井 2014 30~44 本科 黄山非黟县
A25 客栈民宿 南湖 2014 30~44 高中 四川资阳
A26 客栈民宿 后街 2014 18~29 高中 黟县非宏村
A27 饮品小吃店 商业街 2015 30~44 初中及以下 宏村本地
A28 客栈民宿 东边田 2015 18~29 初中及以下 宏村本地
A29 旅游纪念品 月沼 2015 18~29 大专 山西大同
A30 客栈民宿 东边井 2015 30~44 本科 辽宁沈阳
A31 饮品小吃店 商业街 2016 18~29 初中及以下 湖北襄阳
A32 客栈民宿 水墨宏村 2016 30~44 初中及以下 宏村本地
A33 客栈民宿 东边井 2016 18~29 本科 宏村本地
A34 旅游纪念品店 商业街 2017 18~29 高中 黟县非宏村
Tab. 3  宏村旅游小企业访谈样本一览表
Fig. 1  旅游小企业的成长路径及其驱动机制
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