Evaluation of sustainable tourism for eliminating poverty in key villages based on risk matrix method: A case study of Fujian province
LIN Mingshui1,2(),LIN Jinhuang2,3,WANG Kaiyong2(),CHEN Tian2,WU Shidai1
1. College of Tourism, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China 2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China 3. College of Geographic Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
The eco-environment of rural poverty-stricken areas is so fragile to make the relationship between poverty and eco-environment multidimensional, complex and different. Governments, academia and industry have reached a consensus on the importance of avoiding poverty alleviation villages' falling into "poverty trap" and developing tourism and other green industries to get rid of poverty. However, how to maintain the balance between socio-economic development and ecological protection in poor areas has been a hot and tough issue in the research of tourism poverty alleviation. The effective evaluation of the risk of ecological vulnerability in poverty alleviation villages has become the basis and important premise of developing sustainable tourism for eliminating poverty. Therefore, this paper established a risk matrix of ecological vulnerability in key villages based on risk matrix method and GIS spatial analysis method. A survey of 472 key rural poverty alleviation villages in Fujian province was conducted and some data were collected. These key villages were classified into five categories according to the risk level of ecological vulnerability: very high, high, medium, low and very low. This paper also put forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for sustainable tourism poverty alleviation. We identified 7 main driving factors that lead to the risk of ecological vulnerability, among which human factors have gradually replaced the natural factors to become the main leading factors. SPCA analysis shows that there are 4 man-made factors with a cumulative contribution rate (CCR) of 59.21%, while there are 3 natural factors with CCR of only 28.32%. What's more, constructing ecological vulnerability risk matrix can effectively evaluate the sustainability of tourism poverty alleviation in key villages. Some 64.83% of the 472 key villages in Fujian province are at high risk level. In terms of existing tourism poverty alleviation model, only 166 villages are sustainable, while 306 key villages should be changed or improved. This study deepened the theoretical research on sustainable tourism poverty alleviation in the red soil mountainous areas of southern China, and provided the experience for Fujian and even the country's fragile ecosystem to alleviate poverty.
. 基于RM的福建省旅游扶贫重点村生态脆弱性风险评价[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(12): 2517-2527.
WANG Kaiyong et al
. Evaluation of sustainable tourism for eliminating poverty in key villages based on risk matrix method: A case study of Fujian province[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(12): 2517-2527.
The vulnerability assessment in this paper is based on the following points: 1) The vulnerable eco-environment is that with unstable structure,therefore it is sensitive to outside interfere factor sensitive and is easy to develop deterioration under external interference,and the self-restoring force of the eco-environment is worse.2) The type of vulnerability in the research area belongs to that being liable to be degradated caused by erosion,so the authors choose the key element and major indicator which are easy to cause erosion as the assessment indices.3) The vulnerability of ecosystem includes the potential vulnerability before influenced by human activity and the realistic vulnerability after influenced by human activity.This paper chooses altitude,gradient,soil erosion index K,annual rainfall,the proportion of rainfall in rainy period and the drought index of rainless period as an evaluation system of potential ecological vulnerability.In addition to the above factors,two other factors-forest coverage and sloping land index are added to denote the comprehensive effects of regional human-earth relation,economic development and managing level.The revised system indicates the realistic vulnerability. This paper takes Hengyang Basin as a case to study the evaluated potential vulnerability degree of the relevant counties and the realistic vulnerability degree of the same counties respectively in 1984 and 2000.The calculation results show that the potential environmental vulnerability in most parts of Hengyang Basin is at light degree,among them the vulnerable degree of Hengnan County in the central part of the basin is the biggest and Hengyang County comes second.Either in 1984 or 2000,the realistic ecological the vulnerability degree is the biggest in Hengnan County and Qidong County comes next.Comparing the realistic vulnerability degree in 1984 with that in 2000,the latter of all the counties reduces to various degree,among them,Hengyang County reduces the most and the least is Hengnan County.The assessment results show that the eco-logical vulnerability of Hengyang Basin is relatively low before the environment is destroyed by human activity,tending to be absolute degradation and relative restoration.Among all of the counties,the ecosystem of Hengnan County located in the middle part of the Hengyang Basin is most vulnerable,so the degradation here is serious and the restoration is very difficult.
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The risk associated with a given hazard (natural or technological) generally results from the interaction between the hazard potential and the vulnerability. This paper is centred on the assessment of the vulnerability variable. A quantitative vulnerability assessment and mapping methodology is proposed, with two main specificities: (1) it is hazard- and spatially-centred (respectively, oil spills and coastal areas) and; (2) the spatial segregation level used is the municipality. Due to the geographic context of the Portuguese mainland coast, the proposed methodology was applied in an attempt to illustrate the spatial distribution and the degree of the vulnerability associated to oil spills for mainland Portugal coastal municipalities. A final map is presented together with other informative elements. Analysis and discussion of the results allows for the understanding that: (1) there is a very heterogeneous and differential distribution of the degree of vulnerability to oil spills along the Portuguese coastline; (2) the application of specific hazard-centred and spatially-centred vulnerability assessment methodologies, comprising multi-dimensional indicators (e.g., geographic, ecological, demographic, social and economic), produces more robust and realistic results, highlighted by a thorough and spatially detailed analysis; and (3) future research is required on vulnerability assessment in Portugal; along side, hazard potential assessment methodologies must also be developed in order to create a final risk profile, which can be an extremely useful tool in spatial planning and management.