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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (12): 2541-2553     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201812014
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
北京典型行业微区位选址比较研究——以北京企业管理服务业和汽车制造业为例
李佳洺(),孙威,张文忠()
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
Comparative study on micro-scale location choice of typical industries: The case study of management service and automobile manufacturing in Beijing
LI Jiaming(),SUN Wei,ZHANG Wenzhong()
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
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摘要 

以微观企业数据为基础,采用核密度空间平滑和条件逻辑选择模型等方法,重点关注企业在城市内部微观尺度下的区位选择,并对北京典型现代服务业和制造业区位选择的差异进行对比分析。结果表明:① 北京中小型制造企业倾向于在集聚区分布,符合马歇尔式产业集群的特征,而服务业则是大型企业更倾向于集中布局;② 尽管微观尺度下多样化和上下游产业链对现代服务业和制造业依然有重要影响,但是与宏观尺度下不同的是对于现代服务业来说过度多样化并不利于其发展,对于制造业来说区域专业化劳动力规模而非专业化程度更为重要;③ 政府对地铁等公共设施布局选址将对现代服务业的微观区位产生重要影响。

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李佳洺
孙威
张文忠
关键词 企业区位选择微观尺度产业集聚北京 
Abstract

Industrial location has attracted much attention since classical location theories were built, but most of literature focused on location choice at macro scale. However, micro-scale location choice became a troublesome problem due to the reduction of land and the increase of land price. The research employed a unique micro-firm dataset to identify industrial agglomeration areas of service and manufacturing industries in Beijing and then uncovered factors which have impact on micro-scale location choice within urban areas. Importantly, the result further showed difference of location choice between two typical economic sectors--management service and automobile manufacturing in Beijing. The findings are obtained as follows: (1) 102 service and 130 manufacturing agglomeration areas were identified by firm and employment densities. Firms within these two kinds of agglomeration areas accounted for 72.66% and 44% in service and manufacturing industries respectively. Generally, most of large service firms had concentrated into those service clusters, while large manufacturing enterprises used to be located otherwise. Compared with large firms, small and medium-sized manufacturing firms were more inclined to distribute in agglomeration areas. (2) Although the results showed that urbanization economies had significant effect on location choice of both modern service (representing by management service) and manufacturing industry (representing by automobile manufacturing), the influence mechanisms are completely different. The former prefers a diversified local labor market and relatively diversified industrial environment, while the latter needs a complete industry supplying chain. It is only because the automobile industry has a diverse and comprehensive range of auto parts, it seems that automobile manufacturing firms prefer diversified environment. Naturally, upstream and downstream industry chains and specialized labors are key factors for location choice of automobile firms. Even for the service industry, it is not the more diversified the better at the micro scale. (3) Different from existing literature, the results showed that industrial policies had more influence on service than manufacturing industry. It is partly because one of important factors for location of management service is public infrastructure such as subway, on which local governments have enough impact; and partly because, automobile, as an advanced manufacturing industry, is not among the negative list of manufacturing. Besides, enterprise property has significant influence on location choice of both industries.

Key wordslocation choice    micro-scale    industrial agglomeration    Beijing
收稿日期: 2018-06-09      出版日期: 2018-12-24
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41701128);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-314)
引用本文:   
李佳洺, 孙威, 张文忠 . 北京典型行业微区位选址比较研究——以北京企业管理服务业和汽车制造业为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(12): 2541-2553.
LI Jiaming, SUN Wei, ZHANG Wenzhong . Comparative study on micro-scale location choice of typical industries: The case study of management service and automobile manufacturing in Beijing[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(12): 2541-2553.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201812014      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I12/2541
Fig. 1  服务业和制造业产业集聚区
Fig. 2  服务业中心大团及划分结果
产业类型 企业数量
(个)
就业人数
(人)
平均企业
规模(人)
平均面积
(km2
平均企业密度
(个/km2
平均就业密度
(人/km2
较大规模企业(≥ 5000人)数量
服务业 523498 8432005 23.57 169
服务业集聚区 380397 6536508 17.18 4.10 1524.81 19649.85 155
中心大团服务业集聚区 295106 5570879 31.56 7.14 1296.41 24086.84 142
外围服务业集聚区 85291 965629 11.67 1.05 1753.20 15212.85 13
制造业 42064 2765139 102.71 58
制造业集聚区 18523 1308386 85.34 2.17 72.62 4883.87 27
Tab. 1  北京市产业集聚区基本情况
解释变量 定义 预期影响
城市化经济 多样化指数(lnRDI) 集聚区多样化指数的对数值 +/-
从业人员总量(lnLabor_T) 集聚区从业人员总数(人)的对数值 +/-
地方化经济 专业化指数(lnRZI) 集聚区专业化指数的对数值 +/-
企业管理服务从业人员数量(lnLabor_B) 集聚区企业管理服务从业人员(人)的对数值 +/-
企业性质 国有企业区位(dummy_vis) 企业性质为国有企业且在三环内为1,否则为0 +
政策影响 是否为国贸区块(dummy_CBD) 国贸集聚区为1,否则为0 +
到城市中心
距离
2环内(dummy1) 集聚区在2环内为1,否则为0 -
2~3环(dummy2) 集聚区在2~3环环之间为1,否则为0 -
3~4环(对照组) -
控制变量 土地面积(lnLand) 集聚区面积(km2)的对数值 +
地铁站点数量(Subway) 集聚区内的地铁站点数量(个) +
Tab. 2  企业管理服务业企业区位选址模型解释变量定义及预期影响
解释变量 定义 预期影响
城市化经济 多样化指数(lnRDI) 集聚区多样化指数的对数值 +/-
从业人员总量(lnLabor_T) 集聚区从业人员总数(人)的对数值 +/-
地方化经济 专业化指数(lnRZI) 集聚区专业化指数的对数值 +
汽车制造业从业人员数量(lnLabor_V) 集聚区汽车制造业从业人员(人)的对数值 +
企业性质 国有企业区位(dummy_EN) 是国有企业且位于5环内为1,否则为0 +
政策影响 是否为开发区(dummy_DZ) 是开发区为1,否为0 +
是否为5环外(dummy_5R) 5环内为1,5环外为0 -
上下游联系 有色金属加工业从业人员数量(lnLabor_M) 集聚区有色金属加工业从业人员(人)的对数值 +
控制变量 土地面积(lnLand) 集聚区面积(km2)的对数值 +
交通运输条件(dummy_highway) 集聚区在高速公里沿线5 km范围内为1,否为0 +
Tab. 3  汽车制造业企业区位选址模型解释变量定义及预期影响
变量 模型1 模型2 模型3 模型4 模型5 模型6
lnRDI -0.139 -0.141 0.253 -0.141 -0.204
(-0.494) (-0.511) (1.208) (-0.511) (-0.802)
lnLabor_T 0.468* 0.443* 0.705*** 0.443* 0.371?
(2.142) (2.048) (5.543) (2.048) (1.743)
lnRZI -0.392* -0.391* -0.307? -0.391* -0.127
(-2.049) (-2.057) (-1.852) (-2.057) (-0.724)
lnLabor_B 0.148 0.144 0.313*** 0.144 0.142
(1.373) (1.342) (5.106) (1.342) (1.367)
dummy_Visc 0.250? 0.250? 0.250? 0.250? 0.552***
(1.946) (1.946) (1.946) (1.947) (5.202)
dummy1 -0.460* -0.444* -0.369* -0.324? -0.589***
(-2.203) (-2.37) (-2.083) (-1.826) (-3.399)
dummy2 -0.783*** -0.793*** -0.731*** -0.795*** -0.938***
(-4.687) (-4.796) (-4.487) (-4.846) (-6.278)
lnLand -0.086 -0.042 -0.107 0.216? -0.042 0.061
(-0.484) (-0.237) (-0.646) (1.658) (-0.237) (0.342)
Subway_1 0.082*
(2.18)
Subway_2 0.082** 0.080** 0.083** 0.0823** 0.081***
(2.733) (2.759) (2.959) (2.732) (3.886)
dummy_CBD 1.361*** 1.363*** 1.213*** 1.315*** 1.361*** 0.843***
(4.952) (5.369) (5.157) (5.293) (5.364) (4.624)
Tab. 4  企业管理服务企业区位条件Logit模型估计结果
变量含义 模型1 模型2 模型3 模型4 模型5 模型6
lnRDI 多样化指数 1.219* 1.066** 1.393** 1.460** 1.219***
(2.480) (3.229) (2.887) (3.187) (2.483)
lnLabor_T 从业人员总量 0.316* 0.848*** 0.103 0.447*** 0.316*
(2.069) (8.119) (0.697) (3.559) (2.070)
lnRZI 专业化指数 0.233 0.003 0.341* 0.223 0.233*
(1.365) (0.026) (2.021) (1.349) (1.365)
lnLabor_V 汽车制造业从业人员数量 0.284*** 0.358*** 0.368*** 0.257*** 0.284***
(5.078) (9.133) (6.589) (4.947) (5.080)
lnLabor_M 有色金属加工业从业人员数量 0.152*** 0.220*** 0.130*** 0.167*** 0.152***
(3.870) (6.106) (3.632) (4.409) (3.872)
dummy_DZ 是否位于开发区 0.219 0.100 0.533** 0.128 0.220
(1.019) (0.493) (2.934) (0.565) (1.022)
dummy_5R 是否位于5环内 -0.354 -0.049 -0.700** -0.626** -0.086
(-1.440) (-0.208) (-3.059) (-2.646) (-0.396)
dummy_EN 是否为5环内国有企业 0.931** 0.933** 0.933** 0.931** 0.733**
(3.104) (3.107) (3.108) (3.105) (2.787)
lnLand 集聚区面积 0.092 (0.450)** 0.136 0.304* (0.250) (0.092)
(0.503) (3.082) (1.086) (2.008) (1.581) (0.504)
dummy_
highway
是否位于高速公路5 km范围内 0.185 0.284 0.565** 0.003 0.008 0.185
(0.812) (1.349) (2.756) (0.013) (0.042) (0.811)
Tab. 5  汽车制造企业区位条件Logit模型估计结果
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