Residential segregation has been a severe and widespread phenomenon in mega cities along with fast urbanization in China. Migrants from rural area flock into developed cities especially coastal regions for better job opportunities, which provide essential cheap labor for urban growth. However, their housing problems could not be resolved in formal housing either hindered by institutional barrier or unreachable housing price. The housing segregation gradually formed as locals reside in formal gated communities while migrants crowd in informal housing like urban villages, which is characterized with lower rent but substandard living conditions. The housing segregation in China derives from household registration system (hukou). The Index of Dissimilarity (ID) only emphasizes the unevenness of population distribution but could not fully manifest the segregation characteristics in density, location, proximity, etc. Inspired by the work of Massey Denton in multi-dimensional segregation, this article applies three measures of housing segregation (Clustering, Centralization, and Concentration) based on the ID to analyze the segregation between urban residents with and without hukou. It examines the multi-dimensional housing segregation based on hukou status using data from China’s 6th national census in 2010. The typical migrant city Shenzhen was chosen to conduct the case study, and the segregation index of three dimensions was calculated based on 55 sub-districts for comparison. The multi-dimensional segregation indexes showed that Shenzhen has high segregation problems at the city scale, but more homogeneous inside each district. The history, industrial structure and socioeconomic background of each district play a crucial role in the segregation. The outside-custom area provides more chances in labor-dense sectors and attracts more migrants to reside in a large scale, while the inside-custom regions are more advanced in informatics and financial sectors, which results in scattered spots of migrants housing. Cluster analysis reveals the three types of segregation, each of which has its unique processual mechanisms, and policy prescriptions. The study shows that the housing segregation has multiple dimensions and scales. Thus two sets of people could be featured by a single ID yet to be clustered or dispersed, central or peripheral, or concentrated or deconcentrated. Migrants may occupy continuous neighboring blocks in peripheral area, or densely reside in few scattered urban villages in inner city, or congregate in factory dorms alongside each industrial zone. Based on segregation patterns, locations and density, local governments should take different measures like redevelopment of targeted urban villages, large-scale public housing construction or cooperation with factories in worker dormitory improvement accordingly. This article contributes an innovative and comprehensive perspective to conceptualize housing segregation, and provides policy recommendations to deal with the social problems that arise from segregation in China. With the advancement of big data, more practical real-time housing management measures could be developed for practitioners to provide human-centric housing planning and avoid the housing polarization.
[TongDe, FengChangchun, DengJinjie.Spatial evolution and cause analysis of urban villages: A case study of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. , 2011, 30(3): 437-446.]
Rugh JS, Massey DS.Racial segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis. , 2010, 75(5): 629-651.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0003122410380868
The rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, but it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. To isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism through which segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. We thus conclude that segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.
Schnare AB.The Persistence of Racial Segregation in Housing. Washington D. C.: , 1978: 1-30.
Johnston RJ.. 北京: 商务印书馆, 2000: 11-51.
[Johnston RJ.Beijing: The Commercial Press, 2000: 11-51.]
Hutchinson PM.The Effects of Accessibility and Segregation on the Employment of the Urban Poor. , 1974: 77-96.
Streitweiser ML, Goodman JL.A survey of recent research on race and residential location. , 1983, 2(3): 253-283.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF00157999
This article reviews the post-1975 theoretical and empirical research on race and residential location in metropolitan areas of the United States. We interrelate the main themes of recent research, focusing on the causes and consequences of racial residential segregation. Racial prejudice and discrimination, black suburbanization, school segregation, labor market discrimination, and city/surburban environmental differentials are among the issues examined.
[ZhongYichun, FengJian.Residential spatial differentiation of migrant population within the city: A case study of Shenzhen. , 2017, 36(1): 125-135.]
Bond Huie SA, Frisbie WP. The components of density and the dimensions of residential segregation. , 2000, 19(6): 505-524.http://link.springer.com/10.1023/A:1010611901602
The purposes of this research are to examine the relationships between density and residential segregation and to propose a technique for the more precise measurement of social density. Using data from the 1990 US Census for the fifty eight largest metropolitan areas in the United States, we explore the applicability of measuring social density by examining how the dimensions of segregation are related to the components of race-specific and non-racespecific density. Findings suggest that density is an important part of our understanding of the processes involved in the segregation of race/ethnic groups and further that the measurement of social density can make a significant contribution to research on the concentration of poverty, joblessness, and violence.
Chih HoongSin.Segregation and marginalisation within public housing: The disadvantaged in Bedok New Town, Singapore. , 2002, 17(2): 267-288.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02673030220123225
This paper examines segregation within public housing in Bedok New Town, Singapore. The highly structured and regulated public housing sector, accommodating 86 per cent of the total Singapore population, provides an interesting look at the issue of 'choice' and 'constraint', and their implications for segregation. Using the index of dissimilarity to measure evenness of distribution and the P* index to measure social interaction and isolation, the data show that lower-income members of Indian ethnic background had become more segregated between 1980 and 1990. The eligibility criteria and allocation procedures pertaining to public housing help channel certain groups of residents into a narrow array of housing types in strictly defined locations. Particular socio-demographic features of lower-income Indians, coupled with their numerical inferiority, leads to a weak position within the housing market. The issue of constrained choice is especially relevant for this group of public housing residents.
HoustonD.Changing ethnic segregation and housing disadvantage in Dundee. , 2010, 126(4): 285-298.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14702541.2010.549345
Dundee has a small black and minority ethnic (BME) population, which has been neglected by previous research, as have BME populations in small towns and cities generally. As in other British cities, the residential locations of the main BME groups are distinct from that of the white population. After briefly reviewing the history of settlement in Dundee, this paper examines the extent to which patterns of ethnic segregation have changed between 1991 and 2001. Some moves towards dispersal and suburbanisation are identified but there are important contrasts between different BME groups. The implications of segregation for housing availability are assessed through Census of Population data. The hypothesis is posed that the consequences of segregation for housing disadvantage are greater in small cities such as Dundee.
Based on long-term residential land-use data,this paper makes a calculation on the dissimilarity of diverse residential lands,which might be used as reference in the perspective of physical changes of residential spaces.(1)This study classifies residential land use of downtown Shanghai into 6 types:garden house and villa(coded as R1),high-rise apartment before 1949and workers'community after 1949(R2),commercial residential building(R2N),li-nong residential building(R3),shanty town(R4)and rural house(E6).Then,calculations are made on the spatial differentiation,i.e.the index of dissimilarity(D),spatial-modified dissimilarity index(D(s)),multi-group dissimilarity index(D(m))and spatial-modified multi-group dissimilarity index(SD(m))of various land-use types on the spatial scale of blocks and towns.(2)The result shows that the changing of residential spatial differentiation in different time series is not affected by scale effects or whether the dissimilarity index is spatial-modified or not.(3)From 1947 to 2007,in the type of garden house and villa,the dissimilarity maintains high,while the dissimilarity of commercial residential building keeps decreasing.In other types,however,the dissimilarity has a wave change.(4)D(m)of residential land-use shows that residential segregation might be notable in 1947,and decreases obviously from 1947 to 1979,while D(m)of residential space decreases obviously,and increases significantly from 1979 to 2007.(5)The relation between the hierarchy and the dissimilarity of residential land differs in various periods.Before 1949,the dissimilarity is high within high-rank residential land,whereas the index is quite low in medium and low rank residential land.During the socialist period,the rank and the dissimilarity have a positive correlation.In the transitional period,a"Vshaped"pattern can be found,which means that the dissimilarity of high rank and low rank residential land is high,and low dissimilarity can be seen in medium rank residential land.This indicates that the residential space of Shanghai has been polarized in terms of physical environment.
[LiuWangbao, WengJichuan.The impact of housing reform on residential differentiation in urban China. , 2007, 22(1): 49-52.]
PuHao.The effects of residential patterns and Chengzhongcun housing on segregation in Shenzhen. , 2015, 56(3): 308-330.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15387216.2015.1089412
As cities in China undergo growth and transformation, they continue to absorb migrants from both ends of the economic spectrum, giving rise to socially mixed cities. As this occurs, the cities experience an elevated level of residential segregation due to the emergence of new forms of enclave urbanism, such as gated communities andchengzhongcun(villages-in-the-city). Factors including historical legacy, land institutions, and property-led development have contributed to this divided residential pattern at the neighborhood level. However, at larger geographical scales, the degree of segregation depends on whether the provision of different housing types is systematically segregated among urban districts. This paper, using Shenzhen as a case study, examines the spatial logic of the divided pattern of the population by analyzing the distribution of both urban residents and housing provisions. The analysis explores segregation between the privilegedhukouholders and underprivileged non-hukoumigrants as well as the spatial separation of formal urban housing andchengzhongcun. As expected, non-hukoumigrants are largely segregated fromhukouholders due to their much-constrained choice of housing and the widespread availability ofchengzhongcun. A rather low degree of segregation is manifest at the sub-district level. The pattern is somewhat more desirable, as it maintains a more spatially equitable setting that enables disadvantaged groups to reside within short distances of jobs and amenities. Nevertheless, urban renewal programs targeted atchengzhongcunare most likely to jeopardize such a pattern of housing, which may aggravate segregation at the larger geographical levels.
[ChenSong, WangXin, NaKunpeng, et al.Study on tenure-based housing segregation in transitional Shanghai. , 2016, 23(7): 18-23.]
James MS.A generalized index of dissimilarity. , 1981, 18(2): 245-250.http://link.springer.com/10.2307/2061096
The index of dissimilarity can be interpreted as the ratio of the number that must be moved from cells of excess to cells of deficit to achieve even distribution. This interpretation is used to generalize the index in two directions. First, the index is made applicable to more than two groups at a time. Second, an index and a test of significance are made available for explorations of cells of a two-way contingency table. DISSIM is the name of a computer program which provides these calculations for contingency tables.
A tool for measuring segregation in settlement patterns is introduced. This in an extension of the well-known Index of Dissimilarity. By incorporating locations of areal units into the measurement process directly, the distance-based approach substantially reduces the dependence upon size and number of data observations characteristic of the Index of Dissimilarity and other approaches. Experimental tests are reported. These suggest that the locational index constitutes an improvement and is applicable in comparative studies, either cross-sectional or longitudinal.
White MJ.The measurement of spatial segregation. , 1983, 88(5): 1008-1018.https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/227768
The index of dissimilarity has come to be the principal statistic for measuring segregation, particularly urban residential segregation by race. Recently, though, a literature has arisen which criticizes the dissimilarity index and proposes revisions or alternative statistics. Here a statistic is derived that explicitly incorporates the spatial relationships among the geographic parcels into the tabulation, a feature absent from the dissimilarity index and its competitors. This proximity statistic is compared with other indices and is found to be somewhat successful in distinguishing between single-cluster and multiple-cluster residential settlement patterns.