• 论文 •

### 战国中山王墓《兆域图》的初步探讨

1. 中国科学院地理研究所
• 出版日期:1982-03-15 发布日期:1982-03-15

### PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ANCIENT《 GRAVEYARD PLAN》 OF THE CHINESE WARRING-STATUS PERiOD(475-221 B.C.), AS UNEARTHED FROM THE GRAVE OF KING ZHONGSHANWANG, PING SHAN COUNTY. HE-BEI PROVINCE. CHINA.

Sun Zhongming

1. Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica
• Online:1982-03-15 Published:1982-03-15

Abstract: The 《Graveyard Plan》 of the Chinese Warring-Status Period was unearthed from the large ancient grave of King Zhongshanwaeg, Xi, (Grave no.1), two kilometres to the west of the historical capital remain of the ancient Zhongshan Kingdom, located in Ping Shan County, HeBei province, China. This is an architectural plan of a graveyard, and was sculptured out of a piece of rectangle copperplate with a length of 94 cm, a width of 48 cm and a thickness of about 1 cm.There are a lot of graph symbols, numerical notes and annotations on this plan, to express the situation of "walls", "slope sides", "palaces", "halls" and "gates", etc. Besides, the 42-word Order of King Zhongshanwang was sculptured on it, and the distance numbers were also sculptured on the plan, near the lines between the graphs. All the lines, symbols and epigraphs were inlaid with gold and silver, so it looks very exquisite and in perfect keeping.Taking a view of the cultural relics and epigraphs unearthed, this plan was made in 2200 B.P. at least. It is one century earlier than the date of other ancient plan and map, the Topography Map and the Army Station plan, as unearthed from the Grave no.3, Mawangdui Grave of the Han Dynasty (2100 B.P.) in 1973. This is the earliest plan in China, so far as we know.The features of the Graveyard Plan are as follows.1. The earth-surface objects were expressed on this plan with line or graph symbols. For instance, the "gates", "Palaces" and "halls" were expressed with graphs, and the "walls" and "slope sides", lines. The lines of the slope sides are very fine, being a datum line of the slope-starting point of this grave.2. The horizontal distances among all the objects of this plan were expressed with a proper scale, and annotated numerically, of which. There are 24 numerical annotations, using the "Chi (one chi=1/3 metre)" as their units and 14 numerical annotation, using the "step (one step=5 chis)" as their units. The "chi" numbers are approximate to the real distances, but the "step" numbers are merely the sketchy numbers of distances, with larger errors.3. The Graveyard Plan has its definite orientation. All the gates, as expressed with graph symbols on this map, are at the top of graph symbols of the "palaces" and "halls" on this plan. On the basis of the fact that the gates of coffin chamber faced south at that time, we assume that the upper side of the plan means south, and the bottom, north.4. From the lines of the slope sides on the plan, one can know the topography and situations of the slopes of the grave.As mentioned-above, as early as both the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) and the Warring-Status Period (475-221 B.C.), there had been a set of expressive methods of cartography in ancient China.