地理研究 ›› 1982, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (4): 80-88.doi: 10.11821/yj1982040010

• “南水北调对自然环境影响”问题讨论 • 上一篇    下一篇

北宋惠民河的开凿与南水北调

盛福尧, 陈代光   

  1. 河南省科学院地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1982-12-15 发布日期:1982-12-15

THE EXCAVATION OF THE HUI MIN HE RIVER AND THE SENDING OF WATER FROM SOUTH TO NORTH

Sheng Fuyao, Chen Daiguang   

  1. Institute of Geography Henan
  • Online:1982-12-15 Published:1982-12-15

摘要: 惠民河是北宋东京(开封)“四大运渠”之一,在航运上曾经起过重要的作用. 惠民河由三河段组成:闵河、蔡河、自合流镇大流堰至长平镇入蔡河的运河.除蔡河外,共余两河段均为北宋时开凿. 本文根据文献记载及野外调查,论述惠民河的几个问题:北宋开凿惠民河的目的,是为了解决水源不足及西南部地区的航运问题. 开凿惠民河的工程包括两部分:一是自颖昌府(今许昌)凿渠引潩、洧二水至京城(开封),以通京城西南之漕,并补给原有运河的水源;二是从合流镇(今西华县逍遥镇)大流堰开渠至长平镇(今西华县东北).并在方城廊道开挖渠道,试图打通长江流域与黄河、淮河流域间的交通.但因设计不够周密,工程质量低,方城的渠道未能开通. 北宋开凿了惠民河,实现了区域性的南水北调,对航运及灌溉起了积极的作用.惠民河的设计,线路的选择及其他方面的经验教训,对今天中线南水北调的建设具有现实意义.

Abstract: The Hui Min He is one of the four canals used for sending grain to Dong Jing (Kei Feng) in the Northern Song Dynasty, It played an important role in navigationThe Hui Min He River consists of three sections. Min He,Cai He and the canal from Da Liu dam of He Liu Chen to chang ping chen which emptied into the Cai He.with the exception of the Cai He, the other two rivers were all excavaed during the period of Northern Song Dynsty.This article basing on the records and field investigation, discusses the following questions.The purpose for the Northern Song Dynasty to excavate the Hui Min He was to solve the problem of water-shortage in the canal and the navigation in the southwest district of Henan province.The project of excavating the Hui Min He contains two parts.One begins near Ying Chang Fu (now named Hsu Chang) which was excavated to lead the wei He and Yi He to Dong Jing (Kei Feng), so that grain could be transported from the south west district to Dong Jing and the water source of the canal be replenished.The other one was excavated from Da Liu dam of He Liu-chen(now named Xiao Yao Chen of Xi Hua) to Chang-ping-chen(now situated in the northeast of xi Hua).Besides,the canal in Fang Cheng corridor was also excavated so as to link up the communication between the Yangtze River basin and the Huang.Huai River basin.This project, however, failed because of the lack of precision in designing and the inferior quality of engineering.The excavation of the Hui Min He by the Northern Song Dynasty realized partially the plan of sending water from south to north among the regions in Henan province and also promoted and facilitated navigation and irrigation.The excavating plan of Hui Min He the selection of its water route and the experience of success or failure are still today of practical significance in estabilishing the middle-route transfer of the Yangtze water northward.