地理研究 ›› 1983, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (1): 1-11.doi: 10.11821/yj1983010001

• 论文 •    下一篇

黄淮海平原的利用和改造

姜德华   

  1. 中国科学院地理研究所
  • 收稿日期:1982-10-20 出版日期:1983-03-15 发布日期:1983-03-15

THE UTILIZATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE NORTH CHINA PLAIN

Jiang Dehua   

  1. Institute of Geography, Acabemia Sinica
  • Received:1982-10-20 Online:1983-03-15 Published:1983-03-15

摘要: 黄淮海平原在我国占有重要的地位。但长期以来,这里存在着干旱、洪涝、盐碱和风沙等自然灾害,一亿亩以上的低产农田,农业产量不稳不高,人民生活水平提高不快。不过,只要趋利避害、发挥优势,就可挖掘巨大的生产潜力,把它逐步建设成为我国重要的商品粮、棉、油、大豆和水果生产基地与综合性的农业区。作出这一决策的有利条件是:该区土地、光、温等资源存在着一定的优势;劳动力资源充足,城市、工业、交通发达,有利于农业的发展;农业历史发展悠久,具备一定的生产基础;国家对这一地区的开发、利用和治理已经取得了一定的效果和经验。治理、改造黄淮海平原的战略思想应该是:统一领导,全面规划,综合治理,先易后难,点面结合,长期坚持,讲究实效。在克服自然灾害方面,应按照排涝——除盐——抗旱——培肥的顺序来解决问题,逐步改善自然生态环境;同时建立与之相适应的农业生产结构系统。为了从根本上保障除灾增产目标的实现,从长远来说,南水北调,黄、淮、海三大河流的整治及中、上游的土壤保持,都是与发展黄淮海平原农业生产有关的重大问题。

Abstract: The North China Plain occupies an important position in the country. However, natural hazards of drought, flood, salinization-alkaliiation as well as-wind hazard frequently take place over a long period of time. Besides, there are more than 100 million mu of low-yield land, hence agricultural production is unstable and not high, and living standard of the local people is impossible to raise rapidly. So long as what is beneficial is promoted and what is harmful is avoided and superiority is given into full play, great potential of production can be tapped. Therefore, it is possible to build the region gradually into an important base for commodity grain, cotton, oil-bearing crops, soyabean and fruits as well as an integrated agricultural region.Favorable conditions for decision making are as follows; land resource, heat and temperature coditions as well as manpower in the region are sufficient, flourishing industry and developed urban areas and transportation are favorable for agricultural develop-ment; in a certain sense, it has a solid foundation for production due to the long history of agricultural development; and some achievements and experience have been obtained by the state on the development, utilization and management of the region.The strategic thinking on the management and transformation of the North China Plain should be: under the unified leadership, draw an overall plan to undertake integrated management; cope with more difficult points after the easy ones being tackled; carry on work in units and areas in a combined way; persist in realizing the goal for a long time to come; and finally stress practical results. In the respect of conquering natural disasters, problems should be solved in the order of flood drainagesalt control-drought resistance-fertility fosterage so as to improve natural ecological environment step by step.Mean-while, agricultural production structural system should be established accor-dingly. In order to ensure fundamentally the realization of the objective on disaster elimination and production increase, from a long-term point of view, water transfer from south to north, the regulation of the three major rivers-the Huanghe, Huaihe and Haihe as well as soil conservation in the upper reaches are all principal measures related to the development of agricultural production of the North China plain.