地理研究 ›› 1983, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (1): 35-47.doi: 10.11821/yj1983010004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土高原沟道流域产沙过程的初步分析

陈永宗   

  1. 中国科学院地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1983-03-15 发布日期:1983-03-15

A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES OF SEDIMENT YIELD IN SMALL CATCHMENT ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

Chen Yongzong   

  1. Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1983-03-15 Published:1983-03-15

摘要: 黄土高原的主要产沙地区是河口镇至龙门黄河干流两侧和泾、洛、渭河中上游,产沙时间集中7—9月或一、二次暴雨期。流域产沙量与河道断面输沙量基本一致。产沙最与降雨量加径流深组合因子成正比相关,并随坡度增大而增加,坡度超过25—28度水流面蚀强度减弱。砂黄土的可蚀性最大,黄土其次,粘黄土最小。灌木林的防蚀效果最好。近三十年来黄土高原的产沙量进一步增加,其中由人类活动而增加的沙量约占黄河平均输沙量的23~35%。沟道流域的产沙过程具有垂直分带规律。沟间地以细沟侵蚀产沙为主,沟谷地是水力、重力和洞穴侵蚀综合作用的场所。黄土丘陵区沟谷地的产沙量此沟间地大59.0%左右;黄土塬区产生的泥沙绝大部来自沟谷地。

Abstract: The main regions of sediment yield lie on the both sides of Huang He from Hekouzen to Lunmen, and in the upper and middle reaches of Jinhe, Lohe and Wehe river on the Loess Plateau. The sediment yield is concentrated in the period from July to September, or in one or two rainstorms.The delivery ratio approches to in the watersheds on the Plateau. Sediment yield in a small catchment is the result of both physical factors and human activities.Soil erosion is proportional to the addition of precipitation and the depth of runoff and increases with the gradient of the ground surface, while the runoff flow erosion decreases on the slope of over 25°-28°. Clayly loess is present in the south part of the Plateau and coarse loess in the north. Scrub is better for soil conservation than other vegetations. The sediment yield has been increasing in the last 30 years in the lower reaches of the Huanghe. The artificial increase is about 23-35% of the mean transporting sediment.The pattern and intensity of soil erosion vertically change from the top to bottom in the small catchment. Rill erosion dominates in the intergully, and gully bank is an area of multi-functions of water erosion, gravitational and cavern erosions. The sediment output in gully bank is abnut 59% higher that in the Loess region of gullied-hilly, and most sediment yield from the gully bank is in the Loess gullied-table areas.