地理研究 ›› 1983, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (3): 73-86.doi: 10.11821/yj1983030008

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

冰雪覆盖与气候变化

王绍武   

  1. 北京大学
  • 收稿日期:1982-09-06 出版日期:1983-09-15 发布日期:1983-09-15

GLOBAL ICE-SNOW COVER AND CLIMATIC CHANGES

Wang Shaowu   

  1. Beijing University
  • Received:1982-09-06 Online:1983-09-15 Published:1983-09-15

摘要: 引言冰雪覆盖是地球—大气系统中一个活跃的成员,也是地理环境中的一个重要组成部分。因此,多年来冰雪覆盖就是地理学家及气候学家的研究对象。冰雪覆盖的变化,对气候有很大影响,小至海冰与大陆积雪的季节与年际变化,大到冰河期大陆冰盖的巨大改变,都在不同尺度的气候变化中留下了不可磨灭的痕迹。

Abstract: This paper reviewed the investigations on the ice and snow covers in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere and compared the cover areas obtained by different authors. It shows that the areas calculated from more accurate satellite data set are generally in accord with other series constructed on the basis of naked observations (Table 1).The trend in the long-period variations of sea ice cover was studied in relation to the warming trend for the period from 1920S to 1940S, and to the cooling trend during 1960S in the Northern Hemisphere (Fig.2 and Fig.3).The variations of ice cover areas in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere show great discrepancy. It is noted that recently the arctic sea-ice area has somewhat increased while the antarctic ice is in consistent decreaseIt indicated that large interannual fluctuations were observed in the snow cover area variations in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over Eurasia, the range between the maximum (1978) and the minimum (1970)accounts for about 20% of the normal.It has long been recognized that after a heavy sea-ice year the general atmospheric circulation and climate act in considerablly different way from that after a light sea-ice year. This relationship was proved recently by synoptical studies and numerical experiments. It must stress that the climatic conditions at high northern latitudes in autumn has a significant influence on the winter sea-ice cover, which is illustrated in Fig.6.