地理研究 ›› 1987, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (1): 86-91.doi: 10.11821/yj1987010011

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际土壤侵蚀研究工作的最新动态

陆兆熊   

  1. 加拿大多伦多大学地理系
  • 收稿日期:1985-11-21 出版日期:1987-03-15 发布日期:1987-03-15

RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN STUDY OF SOIL EROSION IN THE WORLD

Shiu Hungluk   

  1. Department of geography University of Toronto, Canada
  • Received:1985-11-21 Online:1987-03-15 Published:1987-03-15

摘要: 近年来,欧美土壤侵蚀研究动向主要可归纳为三点:1)重视土壤侵蚀过程研究:2)强调土壤侵蚀研究需要多学科协同进行;3)要求利用现代科学技术先进手段进行研究。五十年代末至六十年代初期,美国农业部的土壤保持局利用过去30年的田间观测数据编成了流行很广的土壤流失通用方程(USLE)。

Abstract: In recent years nearly all of organizations concerned in United States and Europe have paid much attention to the application of new techniques and methods to study of soil erosion. American scientists are making effort to develop new general soil loss equation, in which the role of gromorphologist will be more stressed. Many researchers attempt to substitute soil shearing resistance for K factor in USLE. Since the calculated rainfall intensity and kinetic energy of rainfall obtained by existing methods tend to be lower than those of natural rainfall, some researchers try to design more efficient equipment which can be used to make direct measurement of kinetic energy of natural rainfall. Some progress has also been made in studying the relationship between kinetic energy and shape of rainfall drop.Thorough study on the relation of soil crust to soil erosion has become a key link to the forecast of soil erosion. Whether rills are developed or not is another key to estimating the amount of soil erosion on slopes.Establishment of mathematic model for soil erosion has attracted much attention of researchers since 1970's, but unfortunately no important breakthrough has been made upto now.