地理研究 ›› 2002, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 61-70.doi: 10.11821/yj2002010008

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原古地理环境研究

李炳元1, 潘保田2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京100101;
    2. 兰州大学,兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2001-07-18 修回日期:2001-11-23 出版日期:2002-02-15 发布日期:2002-02-15
  • 作者简介:李炳元(1939-),男,江苏常熟人,研究员。主要从事青藏高原等地貌与第四纪环境研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(G1998040800);中国科学院重大特别支持项目(KZ951A1204,DZ95T06)

Progress in paleogeographic study of the Tibetan Plateau

LI Bing-yuan1, PAN Bao-tian2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2001-07-18 Revised:2001-11-23 Online:2002-02-15 Published:2002-02-15

摘要:

本文综述了最近 5 0年青藏高原古地理演化中一些基本问题研究进展。分析了中新世~上新世青藏古地理环境 ,高原在 3 6MaBP海拔不超过 10 0 0m ,此后强烈隆升。青藏高原最近三次冰期年代分别为 72 5~ 5 81、 2 89~ 136、 82~ 10kaBP ,冰期中不存在“大冰盖”。高原晚新生代重大古地理演化阶段和事件为 :38~ 2 2MaBP行星风系控制的热带 亚热带低地、 2 2~3 6MaBP古季风出现与主夷平面发育、 3 6~ 1 7MaBP高原强烈隆升与现代季风形成和现代河谷发育、 1 1~ 0 6MaBP高原抬升进入冰冻圈与大冰期出现、 0 15MaBP以来强烈隆升与高原内部干旱化。本文还讨论了高原古地理尚需深入研究的一些重大问题

关键词: 青藏高原, 古地理, 高原隆升, 古冰川, 气候环境事件

Abstract:

This article summarizes research progress in some basic problems on paleogeographic revolution of the Tibetan Plateau in the last 50 years, especially recent decade. Based on reviews of current viewpoints and analysis of Miocene and Pliocene paleogeographies, it was suggested that altitude of the Tibetan Plateau was less than 1000m before 3.6Ma BP and intense uplift of the plateau began at that time. The ages of last three glaciations in the plateau are 725~581,289~136 and 82~10ka BP respectively, which are comparable with oxygen isotopic stages in deep sea. Large ice sheet did not exist in the Tibetan Plateau in the Maximum Glaciation of Pleistocene. Environmental changes were frequent with high amplitude and desiccation occurred in the Tibetan Plateau since the last interglacial period. Important phases and events of paleogeographic evolution in Cenozoic are: tropical and subtropical lowland controlled by planetary wind system between 38 and 22Ma BP, appearance of paleo-monsoon and development of main planation surface between 22 and 3.6Ma BP, intense uplift resulting in the formation of the modern monsoon and development of water system between 3.6 and 1.7Ma BP, entrance of cryosphere and maximum glaciation between 1.1 and 0.6Ma BP, and intense uplift and desiccation of climate in the inner plateau. Finally, some important problems need to be researched in future are suggested. It is indicated that key to breakthroughs in paleogeographical research lies in analysis of depositional basins and stratified landforms in and around the plateau, precise dating and explanation of high-resolution environmental information.

Key words: the Tibetan Plateau, paleogeography, uplift of the plateau, ancient glacier, climatic and environmental events