地理研究 ›› 2002, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (2): 171-178.doi: 10.11821/yj2002020005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河中游流域地貌形态对流域产沙量的影响

卢金发   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2001-07-02 修回日期:2001-12-20 出版日期:2002-04-15 发布日期:2002-04-15
  • 作者简介:卢金发(1944-),男,上海市人,研究员。长期从事流域侵蚀产沙及其所引起土地退化和荒漠化研究 与制图,曾主编黄土高原1 50万侵蚀图,参与主编黄土高原资源与环境遥感系列图,发表论文30余 篇,合作专著4本。E-mail:lujf@mx.cei.gov.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所创新项目(CXIOGA000502);国家自然科学基金委员会;水利部联合资助重大项目(59890200)

Effect of basin morphology on sediment yield in the middle reaches of the Yellow River

LU Jin fa   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2001-07-02 Revised:2001-12-20 Online:2002-04-15 Published:2002-04-15

摘要:

在黄河中游地区 ,选择了 5 0多个面积约 5 0 0~ 2 5 0 0平方公里的水文测站流域 ,分别代表 6种不同自然地理类型 ,在流域沟壑密度、沟间地坡度小于 15°面积百分比等地貌形态指标量计的基础上 ,进行了流域产沙量与地貌形态指标相关分析。结果表明 ,对于不同类型流域 ,流域产沙量随流域地貌的变化遵循不同的响应规律 ,而且视流域其它下垫面环境条件的均一程度 ,其相关程度和响应速率各不相同。受地面物质、植被、地貌发育阶段等流域其它下垫面环境条件的制约 ,除沟壑密度外 ,流域产沙量与流域地貌形态的关系都没有人们以前所预期的好。

关键词: 黄河中游, 地貌形态, 产沙量

Abstract:

More than 50 river basins with gauging stations were chosen for an analysis on relationships between sediment yield and basin morphological characteristics in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. They have drainage areas ranging from 500 to 2500 km 2 each and can be categorized into 6 types of basins with different physiographical backgrounds:the loess hilly basins and highly weathered mudstone & siltstone basins north to Wuding River,loess hilly basins in north Shaanxi, west Shanxi and east Gansu provinces, loess hill + bedrock mountain basins, bedrock mountain + loess hilly basins, loess yuan basins and bedrock mountain basins. A set of data on river basin morphology were obtained by using morphometric method, including drainage density, percentage of inter gully area with slope steepness less than 15°, relief ratio, basin roughness, basin circularity etc. Different relationships between sediment yield and basin morphological characteristics were obtained for different types of river basins by plotting and multi variate analyses. The results showed that the best correlation exits between sediment yield and drainage density, but the relations between sediment yield and the other morphological characteristics are not as good as expected due to heavy disturbance of surface material, vegetation coverage, morphological development from various types of river basins. If taking the basin types as parameters, different fitness, intercept and slope of correlation lines were observed between sediment yield and drainage density for different types of river basins, showing a control of other basin characteristics, such as surface material, vegetation, landform development etc., on the relationships of sediment yield and basin morphological characteristics. The intercepts and slopes of lines tend to increase from loess hilly basins through loess hill + bedrock mountain basins and bedrock mountain + loess hilly basins to bedrock mountain basins subsequently. It indicates that basin morphology is an important factor affecting sediment yield of a river basin but can exert substantial influence on sediment yield of the river basin only when the basin characteristics are more homogeneous. Therefore a classification of river basin types is necessary before a correlation between sediment yield and basin morphological characteristics is established.

Key words: the Middle Yellow River, basin morphology, sediment yields