地理研究 ›› 2003, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 1-12.doi: 10.11821/yj2003010001

• 论文 •    下一篇

20世纪90年代中国土地利用变化时空特征及其成因分析

刘纪远1, 张增祥2, 庄大方1, 王一谋3, 周万村4, 张树文5, 李仁东6, 江南7, 吴世新8   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院遥感应用研究所, 北京 100101;
    3. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 兰州 730000;
    4. 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都 610041;
    5. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春 130012;
    6. 中国科学院武汉测量与地球物理研究所, 武汉 430077;
    7. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008;
    8. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2002-11-28 修回日期:2002-12-20 出版日期:2003-02-15 发布日期:2003-02-15
  • 作者简介:刘纪远(1947-),男,广东惠州人,中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所所长,研究员,博士生导师。 主要从事资源环境遥感与土地利用变化研究。
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX1-Y-02,KZCX02-308)

A study on the spatial-temporal dynamic changes of land-useand driving forces analyses of China in the 1990s

LIU Ji-yuan1, ZHANG Zeng-xiang2, ZHUANG Da-fang1, WANG Yi-mou3, ZHOU Wan-cun4, ZHANG Shu-wen5, LI Ren-dong6, JIANG Nan7, WU Shi-xin8   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101;
    2. Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, CAS, Beijing 100101;
    3. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000;
    4. Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, Chengdu 610041;
    5. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS,Changchun 130012;
    6. Wuhan Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan 430077;
    7. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS,Nanjing 210008;
    8. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830000, China
  • Received:2002-11-28 Revised:2002-12-20 Online:2003-02-15 Published:2003-02-15

摘要:

在土地利用变化时空信息平台的支持下,本文对我国20世纪80年代末到90年代末的土地利用变化过程进行了全面分析,揭示了我国10年来土地利用变化的时空规律,分析了这些规律形成的主要政策、经济和自然成因。研究表明,20世纪90年代,全国耕地总面积呈北增南减、总量增加的趋势,增量主要来自对北方草地和林地的开垦。林业用地面积呈现总体减少的趋势,减少的林地主要分布于传统林区,南方水热充沛区造林效果明显。中国城乡建设用地整体上表现为持续扩张的态势。90年代后5年总体增速减缓,西部增速加快。20世纪90年代我国的土地利用变化表现出明显的时空差异,政策调控和经济驱动是导致土地利用变化及其时空差异的主要原因。据此,本文提出在今后的全国土地利用规划中,应充分考虑我国现代土地利用变化的区域分异规律。同时,在生态环境恢复与建设规划中也应强调自然地理地带的针对性,同时要改变传统的资源规划与管理思路,在基础设施日益完备的条件下,最大程度地发挥跨区域土地资源优化配置的综合优势

关键词: 土地利用, 土地利用变化, 数据库, 动态, 区域分异, 遥感

Abstract:

Supported by the key knowledge innovation projects,i.e., a preliminary study on the theories and techniques of the remotely sensed temporal-spatial information and digital Earth; and a study on the integration of national resources and environment and data sharing, the authors have set up a spatial-temporal information platform by the integration of the corresponding scientific and research achievements during the periods of the 8th- and 9th-Five Year Plan, which comprehensively reflected the features of land-use change, designed a series of technical frameworks on the spatial-temporal database construction based on remote sensing techniques, e.g., the construction of remotely sensed database and land-use spatial database of the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s and the end of the 1990s, which laid a foundation for the dynamic monitoring of land-use change and the corresponding studies. In this paper,the authors have analyzed comprehensively the features of land-use change in the 1990s, revealed the spatial-temporal change of land use supported by remote sensing and GIS technologies as well as analyzed the geophysical and socio-economic driving factors.The findings are as follows: the arable land has been increased in total amount, the balance of decrease in the south and increase in the north was resulted from the reclamations of grassland and forest land. On the whole, the forest land area had a process of decrease, and the decreased area was mainly distributed in the traditional forest areas. Areas with plentiful precipitation and heat in the south, however, had distinct effects of reforestation. The rural-urban construction land had a situation of persistent expansion, and the general expansion speed has been slowed down during the last five years of the 1990s with the exception of the Western China where the expansion speed has been accelerated. The land use change in China in the 1990s had distinct temporal and spatial differences due to two main reasons, which were policy control and economic driving. Hereby, conclusions and proposals brought forward by the authors were as follows: the spatial diversity rules of the modern land use change in China must be fully considered in the future land use planning. At the same time, the pertinence of physical geographical zones must be considered during the planning of eco-environment construction. And, based on the increasingly maturity of the infrastructure, the traditional thoughts on planning and management of resources must be shifted so as to fully realize the optimized allocation of land resources at regional scale.

Key words: land use, land-use change, database, dynamics, regional difference, remote sensing

PACS: 

  • F293.2