地理研究 ›› 2003, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 89-95.doi: 10.11821/yj2003010011

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

论中国北方畜牧业产生与环境的互动关系

韩茂莉   

  1. 北京大学环境学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2002-09-10 修回日期:2002-10-20 出版日期:2003-02-15 发布日期:2003-02-15
  • 作者简介:韩茂莉(1955-),女,北京市人,教授,博士生导师。主要从事历史地理研究。 E-mail:maolih@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40071038);国家自然科学基金重点项目(49831080)

The relationship between environmental changes and naissance of the nomadic life in northern China

HAN Mao-li   

  1. College of Environmental Sciences,Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2002-09-10 Revised:2002-10-20 Online:2003-02-15 Published:2003-02-15

摘要:

畜牧业是从原始农业中分离出来的生产部门,早期的畜牧业属于放养型,依托定居农业而存在,游牧业的产生晚于放养型畜牧业,并与定居农业完全脱离。导致畜牧业从原始农业中分离,并由放养型过渡到游牧型与气候变迁有直接关系。本文以内蒙古朱开沟考古发现为例,论证了畜牧业分离以及游牧业产生与环境变迁的对应关系,并指出草原民族在由原始农业转向畜牧业几乎没有发生空间区域的位移,环境变迁推动人们适应环境放弃农业生产,将生产方式转向畜牧业

关键词: 畜牧业的产生, 环境变迁, 中国北方

Abstract:

Stockbreeding in northern China was a production sector separated from primitive agriculture. Its generation and development experienced the following process. About 5000 years ago, northern China was witnessing a climatic warm period,farming and hunting were basically the predominant human activities with less proportion of stock preeding in areas north of the Great Wall. From that time on to 3500 years ago, agricultural practices became less and less with the climate turning to be colder and drier. On the other hand, stockbreeding and hunting became more and more important. The structure of production changed from original farming and hunting in predomination to stockbreeding and hunting in predomination. But the stockbreeding then was different from nomadism, because it had intimate relationship with agriculture. The archaeological researches in China had proved not only that stockbreeding came from agriculture, but also that the rise of nomadism was related to the use of saddlery. About 800 B.C., the northern tribes in China had been proficient in using saddlery, they gave up completely,settlement life and the genuine nomadism appeared then.In the process of discussion, this paper points out that early stockbreeding belonged to breeding depended on agriculture. Naissance of the nomadic life was later than stockbreeding,making it broken away from agriculture completely. Climate changes were important factors that directly made stockbreeding broken away from agriculture. With this development, stockbreeding turned to the nomadic life. This article discusses the relationship between naissance of the nomadic life and environmental changes. The conclusion is that, when life in the grassland changed into nomadic, the local people did not leave their homeland, the only change they made was that they shifted their production mode from agricultural to nomadic.

Key words: naissance of the nomadic life, environmental changes, northern China

  • K901.9