地理研究 ›› 2003, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 185-191.doi: 10.11821/yj2003020007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

博斯腾湖的水环境保护与可持续利用对策

李卫红1, 陈跃滨2, 徐海量1, 郭永平1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 83001;
    2. 新疆巴音郭楞蒙古自治州水利局, 库尔勒 841000
  • 收稿日期:2002-08-08 修回日期:2002-11-26 出版日期:2003-04-15 发布日期:2003-04-15
  • 作者简介:李卫红(1958-),女,甘肃张掖人,高级工程师。主要从事于环境化学、环境地理研究,发表论文30 多篇,专著1本。E-mail:Liwh@mx.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(90102007);中国科学院知识创新项目(KZCX1-08-03)

A study on water environmental protection and sustainable utilization of Bosten Lake, Xinjiang

LI Wei hong1, CHEN Yue bin2, XU Hai liang1, GUO Yong ping1   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Water Bureau of Xinjiang Bayinguoleng Mongolia Autonomous Perfecture, Kurle 841000, China
  • Received:2002-08-08 Revised:2002-11-26 Online:2003-04-15 Published:2003-04-15

摘要:

本文通过实地调查和对1999~2001年的监测资料的分析,从水环境污染物特性、水环境质量变化、排污源分布及排污量计算等方面探讨了博斯腾湖水环境问题及其成因。提出建立博斯腾湖保护区,加大管理检查和执法力度,加强对农田排污水的控制,强化重点排污口和重点城镇生活污水的排污管理,并通过湖滨湿地生态恢复工程、增源节水工程、加速湖水循环工程等措施,保护和改善博斯腾湖水环境

关键词: 博斯腾湖, 水环境保护, 可持续利用

Abstract:

Located in north western China, the Bosten Lake is the largest continental fresh water lake in China, and the water environmental problems of the lake are very serious. Based on field investigations and monitoring data during 1999 2001, the water environmental problems and its causes in the Bosten Lake have been discussed by analyzing the characteristics of pollutants, changes of water quality, distributions of dumping pollutant sources and dumping pollutant quantity. The results show that: with the descent of water level and the shrinkage of water area of the lake from 1048.75 and 1005 km2 in the 1960s to 1045.21 and 900 km2 in the 1980s respectively, the mineralization increases as high as 2.74 times; there are about 26 pollutant drainage canals in the Bosten Lake area with an annual discharge of over 2.74×10 8 m3 of pollutant water into the lake;the main pollution source to water quality of the Boston Lake is Huangshui general trunk canal drainage alongside some other trunk canal drainages; the third quarter is the highest season in water pollution and the amount of chloride ion, sulfate radical and mineralization entering the Bosten Lake is 2 to 4 times that of discharging from the lake; the amount of industrial sewage drainaging in the lake is about 500×10 4 m3 , an increase of 70% compared with the 1960s; the main pollutants of industrial sewage are COD, BOD 5 and SS, and the amount of drainage is 11214 t, 7029 t and 2431 t respectively. The water body pollutants mainly contain the chloride ion, the sulfate radical, the mineralization, COD and the ammonia nitrogen and so on. The countermeasures for water environmental protection and sustainable utilization of the Boston Lake were proposed in the paper. Firstly, the pollution control in the basin should be done by establishing nature protection area of the Bosten Lake, hancing management and law enforcement, strengthening management of pollutant discharge to the lake and strictly control industrial sewage to enter the lake. And secondly, some ecological engineering measures for water resources protection in the basin should be taken through rehabilitating of lake shore and wetland, increasing the source and saving irrigation water and speeding up water cycle of the Bosten Lake.

Key words: Bosten Lake, water environmental protection, sustainable utilization

  • P941.78