地理研究 ›› 2003, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 579-589.doi: 10.11821/yj2003050006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

应用EUROSEM模型对三峡库区陡坡地水力侵蚀的模拟研究

王宏1, 蔡强国2, 朱远达2   

  1. 1. 加拿大农业部萨斯卡川省Swift Current半干旱草原农业试验站;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2003-01-10 修回日期:2003-07-30 发布日期:2011-02-25
  • 作者简介:王宏(1949-),男,辽宁沈阳人,博士。主要从事农业与水土保持方面的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目“流域侵蚀产沙过程中的尺度转换及模型研究”(40271075);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目“水蚀预报模型研究”;中科院地理科学与资源研究所知识创新工程项目(CXIOGA000502)资助

Evaluation of the EUROSEM Model for predicting water erosion on steep slopeland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

WANG Hong1, CAI Qiang guo2, ZHU Yuan da2   

  1. 1. Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture &|Agri Food Canada;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2003-01-10 Revised:2003-07-30 Published:2011-02-25

摘要:

三峡库区坡地资源被广泛利用,但水土保持措施没有被很好地利用。坡地,尤其是陡坡地是库区主要泥沙来源,因此,有效评估土壤侵蚀风险、预测径流和侵蚀速率以及选择合理的水土保持措施在该地区显得非常必要。EUROSEM模型是动态分布式模型,可以在单独地块或小流域中预测水力侵蚀强度,其特点比较适合库区土壤侵蚀预测预报。本研究以在三峡库区秭归县王家桥小流域水土保持试验站的标准径流小区的人工降雨资料为基础,应用EUROSEM模型模拟陡坡地中的侵蚀状况。模拟结果表明,EUROSEM对人工降雨中径流模拟效果较好,但对土壤流失的模拟效果相对较差,更精确地模拟库区陡坡地的土壤侵蚀状况则需要作进一步的研究

关键词: EUROSEM模型, 陡坡地, 水力侵蚀, 模拟

Abstract:

Steep slopeland (slopes greater than 20%) has been widely used for cropping in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China because of the population pressure and limited arable land Slopeland, especially steep slopeland, is one of the main sources of sediments in the reservoir area Hence, it is quite necessary to assess the risk of soil erosion, predict runoff and erosion rates, as well as design and evaluat the soil protection strategies in the area Most of the water erosion takes place in two or three heavy storms each year in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area Traditional erosion assessment based on scoring systems for rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope and land use provide good information on the spatial distribution of erosion risk but only limited data on erosion rates cannot be easily validated Also, they do not produce the information necessary to design soil conservation measures or evaluate their effect These deficiencies can only be overcome by combining erosion risk assessments with predictions from erosion models The EUROSEM model, a dynamically distributed model, uses physical descriptions to describe the process of soil erosion and simulates erosion on an event basis for fields and small catchments on a minute by minute basis, which is able to predict water induced soil erosion from individual fields and small catchments.It is thus more suitable for this kind of reservoir area The objective of this study was to evaluate the EUROSEM model for predicting water erosion on steep slopeland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area using data obtained through rainfall simulator experiments Rainfall simulations were conducted on steep slopeland plots with slopes >47% with different land uses at the Experiment Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, at an altitude of 293 m in Zigui County of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Hubei province Four treatments were involved: uncultivated, cultivated, hedgerows, and fertilized hedgerows EUROSEM was calibrated using observed hydrographs and sedigraphs from one of the plots in each treatment The simulated hydrograph was first fitted to the observed hydrograph by interactively changing the input parameters followed by a fit of the sedigraphs The results demonstrate that EUROSEM is possible to be used for predicting runoff and approximately determining soil erosion on steep slopeland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, especially for assessing the impact of land use change Further research is necessary to improve the quality of input data

Key words: EUROSEM, steep slopeland, water erosion, simulation

  • S157.1