地理研究 ›› 2004, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 38-44.doi: 10.11821/yj2004010005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京周边地区沙尘暴时空分布特征及其环境背景

吕新苗1, 刘惠清2, 王文杰1,3, 吴绍洪1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京100101;
    2. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院,长春130024,北京100101;
    3. 中国环境监测总站,北京100029
  • 收稿日期:2003-05-28 修回日期:2003-09-20 出版日期:2004-02-15 发布日期:2004-02-15
  • 作者简介:吕新苗(1976-),女,河南南阳人,在读博士生。主要从事自然地理与全球变化区域响应研究。E-mail:lvxm@igsnrr.ac.cn.
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所知识创新工程领域前沿项目(CXIOGA0203)

Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of sand-dust storms around Beijing Region

LV Xin-miao1, LIU Hui-qing2, WANG Wen-jie1,3, WU Shao-hong1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101,China;
    2. College of Urban and Environment Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024,China;
    3. China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100029,China
  • Received:2003-05-28 Revised:2003-09-20 Online:2004-02-15 Published:2004-02-15

摘要:

以 195 1~ 1996年地面气象记录、 90年代末TM影像为主要数据源 ,运用气候统计学方法 ,在地理信息系统技术的支持下分析了近 5 0年北京周边地区 (即华北北部 )沙尘暴的时空变化特征及其区域差异 ,结合遥感影像提取的土地利用和土壤侵蚀信息 ,分析了沙尘暴形成的生态环境背景。结果表明 :沙尘暴高值区位于浑善达克沙地和库布齐沙地的周边 ,特别是西北部的四子王旗 -苏尼特右旗朱日和、二连浩特市 -达茂旗满都拉和达拉特旗 -准格尔旗-乌拉特中旗。从时间变化看 ,午后至傍晚是沙尘暴天气易发的高峰期 ;季节变化总体上春季较多 ,其次是夏季和初秋 ;从年际变化看 ,5 0~ 6 0年代是沙尘暴发生的高值期 ,70~ 80年代在波动中呈减少趋势 ,进入 90年代后又呈上升趋势 ,多发期与干冷气候期相对应。

关键词: 沙尘暴, 空间格局, 时间变化, 生态环境

Abstract:

In North China, an unprecedented heavy sand-stormy weather with high frequency took place in the spring of 2000. Dramatically, it brought direct damage to the region around Beijing, which has aroused even more extensive concern of personages of various circles. Sand-stormy weather research has been widely carried out since then. Therefore, in this paper, based on the climate data from 1951 to 1996 and eco-environmental data, employing climate statistics methods and geographic information sciences(GIS), the author took the land around Beijing as a case to study its characters of the temporal and spatial pattern in the past fifty years. The annual sand-dust storms day was selected as the major index to divide the region into four districts, then the environmental background was analyzed based on data extracted from the remote sensing images of the 1990s. This research demonstrated the spatial distribution and temporal change of sand-dust storms in this area, leading to the following conclusions: diurnally, afternoon(from 12 p.m.to 18 p.m.)was the period of sand-dust storms;seasonally spring and late summer were the sand-dust storms most easily happening periods;interannually,the 1950s to the 1960s witnessed the high value period of the sand-dust storms while the number of the sand-dust storm days tended to reduce in the 1970s and the 1980s but increased in the 1990s again. We also found that the most easily happening period corresponded to the dry and cold climate. As for the spatial distribution, the high value regions were located in the marginal areas of Otindag Sandy Land and Hobq Sandy Land, especially in Siziwangqi-Zhurihe, Erenhot-Damaoqi, Daladqi-Junggarqi-Uradqi.

Key words: sand-dust storms, spatial and temporal distribution, ecological environment