地理研究 ›› 2004, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 165-174.doi: 10.11821/yj2004020004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河小花间石山林区产汇流特征

郝芳华1, 杨桂莲1, 吴险峰1, 刘昌明1, 刘晓伟2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学水科学研究所,北京100875;
    2. 黄河水利委员会水文局,水沙科学教育部重点实验室,郑州450004
  • 收稿日期:2003-04-27 修回日期:2003-08-25 出版日期:2004-04-15 发布日期:2004-04-15
  • 作者简介:郝芳华(1963-),女,江苏连云港人,教授,主要从事水资源与水环境,环境规划、评价与管理方面 的研究。E-mail:fanghua@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)项目(G1999043601);国家自然科学基金委员会;水利部黄河水利委员会黄河联合研究基金项目(50239010)

Analysis of rainfall-runoff in Xiaohua tor-forest district of the Yellow River Basin

HAO Fang-hua1, YANG Gui-lian1, WU Xian-feng1, LIU Chang-ming1, LIU Xiao-wei2   

  1. 1. Institute of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University;Key Laboratory for Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. The Bureau of Hydrology,YRCC, Zhengzhou 450004, China;
  • Received:2003-04-27 Revised:2003-08-25 Online:2004-04-15 Published:2004-04-15

摘要:

产汇流机理研究是水文模拟的基础 ,从实测水文资料出发进行深入分析是认识产汇流特性的有效手段。黄河小花间 (小浪底 -花园口间 )洛河卢氏以上流域为典型的石山林区 ,产汇流特性不同于黄河流域的一般地区。从选取的 43场暴雨洪水资料分析得出 :该地区的暴雨空间分布不均匀 ,存在着明显的暴雨中心 ,产流机制和产流模式复杂。进一步分析变化环境下的降水径流特性后 ,发现年径流量的变化主要受控于降水特性 ,下垫面的改变和人类活动对年降水径流关系影响并不显著 ;但对次洪而言 ,该区生态保护和水土保持措施在一定程度上减少了产流能力 ,提高了暴雨径流相关性。

关键词: 产汇流, 产流机制, 产流模式, 变化环境, 石山林, 小花间runoff generation and routing, mechanism of runoff generation, various components of runoff, variable conditions, tor-forest area, Xiaohua district

Abstract:

Research of runoff generation and routing mechanism is the foundation of hydrological simulations. Further analysis based on hydrological data is an effective means. Lushi basin (4623km 2) located above Luohe in the middle Yellow River is a typical tor-forest area. Its runoff generation and routing characteristics are different from the others’. To further research the asymmetry of precipitation spatial distribution, the following three indexes can be used: dispersion coefficient of basin precipitation (C V), asymmetry coefficient of basin precipitation (η),and ratio of the maximum and the minimum precipitation in basin area (α).To separate runoff components and show changes of air temperature, evaporation, precipitation,runoff and rainfall-runoff coefficient, a hydrograph recession curve displacement method and mass departure method were respectively used. The analysis of the selected 43 rainfall-runoff data from 1971 to 2000 revealed that the region's rainfall spatial distribution is very asymmetric with the existence of a distinctive a storm center; its mean dispersion coefficient of basin precipitation (C V) is 0.51, mean asymmetry coefficient of basin precipitation (η) 0.53 and mean ratio of the maximum and the minimum precipitation in basin area (α) 16.06. Its routing mechanism and modes are very complicated, including over-infiltration and over-fall patterns.The annual direct flow accounts for 74.7% of the total, routing time is 18.0h and lag time 13.7h. An in-depth analysis of routing characteristics on the variational conditions resulted in important conclusions : changes of annual runoff yield and rainfall-runoff coefficient were resulted from rainfall characteristics; changes of underlying surface and human activities did not cause prominent effect on the relation of rainfall-runoff; while to flood, biological protection and water and soil conservation measures increased the cover degree of vegetation and forest, improved interception and soil fixation abiligy, reduced runoff generation capacity and improved the correlation of flood-runoff in the study area, to a certain extent.

Key words: runoff generation and routing, mechanism of runoff generation, various components of runoff, variable conditions, tor-forest area, Xiaohua district