地理研究 ›› 2005, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 140-150.doi: 10.11821/yj2005010016

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

鲁西北平原夏玉米产量与土壤硝态氮淋失

王兴武, 于强, 张国梁, 李运生   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2004-03-28 修回日期:2004-07-26 出版日期:2005-02-15 发布日期:2005-02-15
  • 通讯作者: 于强(1962-),男,安徽阜阳人。研究员,博士生导师。Email:yuq@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:yuq@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王兴武(1973-),男,山东济南人,硕士。主要从事农田生态环境研究。Emai:lwangxw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40001021)

The yield and dynamics of soil nitrate for summer maize on the plain of northwest Shandong province

WANG Xing-wu, YU Qiang, ZHANG Guo-liang, LI Yun-sheng   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2004-03-28 Revised:2004-07-26 Online:2005-02-15 Published:2005-02-15

摘要:

供水量和氮肥施用量是影响农田硝态氮淋失的主要因素。本文通过田间小区试验,研究了水分和氮肥用量对夏玉米产量和土壤硝态氮的影响。试验表明,高水处理(0~50cm平均含水量控制在85%FC,FC为田间持水量032)和低水处理(0~50cm平均含水量控制在70%FC)间产量差异不显著,施肥量(0、100、200、和300kgNha-1)则具有显著影响,并且在200kgNha-1左右时达到最高产量;高水条件下土壤水分硝态氮下渗强,运移深度大,所有施肥处理在200cm处的土壤水硝态氮浓度都要高于国家饮用地下水标准10mgNL-1;低水条件下水分下渗弱,运移深度小于高水处理,但是在200cm处,200、300kgNha-1处理的土壤溶液硝态氮浓度依然高于10mgNL-1

关键词: 水分, 氮肥, 硝态氮淋失, 夏玉米

Abstract:

The water and nitrogen applications are the two main factors that affect the nitrate leaching on farmland. The field experiment was conducted to analyze the nitrate leaching and yield under different nitrogen and water application rates in summer maize field. The result indicated that there was no distinct yield difference between the higher water treatment (with soil moisture controlled between 70%FC and 100%FC in 0~50cm) and the lower one (between 55%FC and 85%FC), while the nitrogen rate had evident effect on yield with the yield reaching the maximum at about 200 kg N ha-1,and significant effect on nitrate leaching. Higher water application could accelerate the leaching of nitrate evidently. Under higher water level, the soil nitrate concentration peaks appeared at deep layers more easily than those under lower water level as an indication of nitrogen leaching, meanwhile the nitrate concentrations of soil water at depth of 200 cm were all higher than the national drinking water limit (10 mg NO-3-N L-1). Comparatively, under lower water treatment the nitrate leaching depths are all less than those under higher water treatment, but NO-3-N L-1 concentrations of soil solution under level of 200 and 300 kg N ha -1at the depth of 200 cm still exceeded the national drinking water limit (10 mg NO-3-N L-1). When NO-3-N in 100cm soil profile came to about 450 kg N ha-1 the soil NO-3-N concentration at soil depth of 200cm would rapidly rise to 130 mg L-1 from 40 mg L-1 ,at the same time the nitrogen rate just reached 230kg N ha-1,which mean that the nitrogen rate should be under about 230kg N ha-1.

Key words: water, nitrogen, nitrate leaching, summer maize