地理研究 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 311-319.doi: 10.11821/yj2006020015

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国畜禽养殖业粪便污染风险与控制策略

高定, 陈同斌, 刘斌, 郑袁明, 郑国砥, 李艳霞   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2005-08-10 修回日期:2005-11-16 出版日期:2006-04-15 发布日期:2006-04-15
  • 通讯作者: 陈同斌,研究员,博士生导师。E-mail:chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:E-mail:chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:高定(1975-),男,浙江宁波人,博士,副研究员。从事堆肥技术和废弃物资源化利用研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家高技术发展研究计划(2004AA649190);国家杰出青年基金项目(40325003)

Releases of pollutants from poultry manure in China and recommended strategies for the pollution prevention

GAO Ding, CHEN Tong-bin, LIU Bin, ZHENG Yuan-ming, ZHENG Guodi, LI Yan-xia   

  1. Center for Environmental Remediation,Institute of Geographic Sciencesand Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China
  • Received:2005-08-10 Revised:2005-11-16 Online:2006-04-15 Published:2006-04-15

摘要:

随着我国畜禽养殖业的迅速发展,畜禽粪便排放不断增加。2002年,我国畜禽粪便产生量达27.5亿吨,畜禽粪便农用地的平均负荷为4.19吨/公顷,畜禽粪便每年流失至水体的总氮、总磷、BOD、COD分别为87万吨、34.5万吨、600万吨和647万吨。聚类分析结果显示,如果将我国各省农用地受畜禽粪便污染的风险分为4级;上海受污染的风险等级最高,其次是河南、天津和山东,北京、江苏、河北、安徽和湖南再次之,其余22个省份农用地受污染的风险相对较小。加强畜禽粪便的管理和资源化利用是解决畜禽粪便污染的主要手段。

关键词: 畜禽养殖, 粪便, 产生量, 环境污染, 区域差异, 风险控制

Abstract:

With the booming of stockbreeding,the production of poultry manure has been increasing continually,which was 2750 million tons in 2002.The production of poultry manure in Sichuan Province was the highest,and then Henan Province and Shandong Province.The average load of cultivated land for poultry manure was 4.19 t/ha in China.The amount of TN,TP,BOD and COD released from poultry manure to water body were 870,345,6000 and 6740 thousand tons per year,respectively.Large amount of poultry manure has been one of the main pollutants to water,threatening the health of soil and atmosphere.Based on the result of clustering analysis,the environmental risks of poultry manure to Chinese cultivated land were divided into four grades: the pollution risk of Shanghai was the highest;the risk of Henan,Tianjin and Shandong was in the second grade;the risk of Beijing,Jiangsu,Hebei,Anhui and Hunan was in the third grade,and the pollution risk of the cultivated land of the other provinces was relatively low.For solving the pollution problem of poultry manure,management should be reinforced,farming-pasturing combined eco-type stock raising should be developed energetically,and economical and practical synthetic utilization technologies for dealing with poultry manure should be developed and popularized,so as to promote the transformation of paultry manure into resources for land use.

Key words: stockbreeding, poultry manure, output, environmental pollution, regional difference, risk control