地理研究 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 596-605.doi: 10.11821/yj2006040005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市水系功能治理方法及应用

郭怀成, 王金凤, 刘永, 毛国柱, 王真   

  1. 北京大学环境学院,北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-05 修回日期:2006-03-20 出版日期:2006-08-15 发布日期:2006-08-15
  • 作者简介:郭怀成(1953-),男,教授、博士生导师。主要从事环境规划与管理以及水环境学方面的基础理论和 应用研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家高技术研究发展计划(863)项目(2002AA601021);国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)项目(2005CB724205)

The framework for functional control of urban water systems and its application

GUO Huai-cheng,WANG Jin-feng,LIU Yong,MAO Guo-zhu,WANG Zhen   

  1. College of Environmental Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China
  • Received:2005-12-05 Revised:2006-03-20 Online:2006-08-15 Published:2006-08-15

摘要:

城市水系治理经历了末端治理、综合治理、系统治理等发展阶段。从系统角度恢复城市水体生态环境是进行水污染治理与水环境修复的主要方法,末端治理与综合治理对生态的考虑比较少,而系统治理在强调工程设计生态化的同时又忽略了水系的景观要素。为实现水质、生态、景观的协同发展,本文在系统治理的基础上提出功能治理的方法框架,包括水系问题诊断、问题评价、功能治理、措施优化与管理等步骤,其优势在于借助一系列生态修复措施及景观设计原理,将生态工程景观化。汉阳水系治理的案例表明:对城市水系而言,水环境修复措施与工程景观的同步设计较生态修复与景观的分步设计有更明显的效果。

关键词: 城市水系, 水环境修复, 系统治理, 功能治理

Abstract:

The urban water system is a complete ecosystem that has dual function of ecology and landscape.The water body pollution worsens the water quality and makes the urban aquatic environment lose its ecologic function,such as providing water resource,defending flood,etc.The degradation of water system landscape could lower the image of the city.The water system control can not only be limited to pollution control,but also include water environment rehabilitation and landscape beautification.At present,systemic control is the most popular and adoptive method for water pollution control and aquatic environment repair.Systemic control takes the whole water ecosystem as a research object,and,based on diverse water problems,makes all kinds of aquatic environment rehabilitation methods and ecological engineering measures integrated.But,systemic control emphasizes the ecological aspect of engineering design and neglects the main factor in water landscape.Taking landscape elements into account in water synthesized controll is a trend of reearch at home and abroad,so a new method including factors of landscape should be found out.This paper tries to make the "functional control" as a new concept which brings water systemic control and landscape design together.Functional control is an extension of the concept "systemic control".In virtue of GIS and water quality records the water functional control first gives qualitative and quantitative analysis of the water system problems,then chooses some key positions(like water connecting points,badly polluted areas,lakefront etc.),and then selects suitable ecological rehabilitation methods according to water environment rehabilitative theories,makes those projects ecological and landscaping,and finally gives a macroscopical landscape designing project of the urban water system. This study aims to give a new view that we should think about landscape factors in water control and pollution will never be the only problem that we should take into account.Basing on theories of Water Environment Rehabilitation,Landscape Ecology,Environmental Aesthetics and Ecosystem Services,this paper brings forward a method frame of water functional control,and makes an application of it to the Hanyang water system.The case study shows that through functional control,not only the water quality but also the landscape of the Hanyang water system has been improved,which is important to urban areas.This means that doing water environment repair and landscape design at the same time is better than doing them separately.

Key words: urban water system, water environment rehabilitation, systemic control, functional control