地理研究 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (6): 994-1002.doi: 10.11821/yj2006060006

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海城市降雨径流污染时空分布与初始冲刷效应

常静1, 刘敏1, 许世远1, 侯立军2, 王和意1   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学资源与环境科学学院教育部地理信息科学重点实验室 上海200062;
    2. 华东师范大学河口海岸科学研究院,上海200062
  • 收稿日期:2006-02-20 修回日期:2006-05-22 出版日期:2006-12-15 发布日期:2006-12-15
  • 通讯作者: 刘敏(1964-),男,内蒙古自治区土左旗人,教授,博士,博士生导师。从事城市环境过程,环境地球 化学与污染生态研究。E-mail:mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn E-mail:E-mail:mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:常静(1980-),女,山西晋城人,博士研究生。主要从事城市多界面环境过程研究。 E-mail:cjing1221@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40131020,49801018);教育部高等学校骨干教师资助计划项目;中国博士后基金资助项目(2005037135)

Temporal-spatial distribution and first flush effect of urban stormwater runoff pollution in Shanghai City

CHANG Jing1, LIU Min1, XU Shi-yuan1, Hou Li-jun2, Wang He-yi1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment Science,Laboratory of Geographical Informationof the Ministry of Education,East China Normal University,Shanghai 200062,China;
    2. Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Research,East China Normal University,Shanghai 200062,China
  • Received:2006-02-20 Revised:2006-05-22 Online:2006-12-15 Published:2006-12-15

摘要:

选取上海市中心城区典型功能区监测降雨事件,研究降雨径流污染时空变化及初始冲刷效应。研究表明,上海中心城区路面径流主要污染物为TSS和CODCr,超出国家地表水Ⅴ类标准四倍多;总磷超出Ⅴ类水质标准两倍以上,氮素营养盐也有不同程度的污染。污染物含量在不同功能区之间显示出相似的分布趋势,交通区明显高于其他区域,其次为商业区和工业区,居民区情况较为良好。降雨强度是影响初始冲刷效应的主要因素,强度较大的降雨冲刷效应较为明显;不同功能区之间,商业区初始冲刷效应较强,其次为居民区和工业区,交通区冲刷强度较弱;TSS和CODCr在商业区和工业区冲刷强度要大于氮磷污染物质;而在交通区和居民区分异特征不明显。

关键词: 降雨径流污染, 时空分布, 初始冲刷效应, 上海中心城区

Abstract:

Increased stormwater flow and the companying runoff pollution are a direct result of urbanization and the consequent increase in the proportion of land area under impervious surface.Runoff from urban areas is often presumed to be a significant contributor to nonpoint source(NPS) water pollution and has been identified as one of the major causes of the deterioration of the quality of receiving waters.The objectives of this study were to investigate the characteristics of pollutants in storm events,and the relationships between pollutant load and flow-runoff patterns,and to analyze EMCs loadings of pollutants,and then reveal "First Flush Effect" of road runoff in different functions in Shanghai City. Stormwater quality and quantity were investigated in urbanized catchments in the central Shanghai city in order to characterize temporal-spatial distribution and First Flush Effect of stormwater runoff pollution.Sampling locations selected can be grouped into four sites with different land use categories(traffic,industrial,commercial and residential areas).Results of the sampling program indicate that concentrations of total suspended solids,TP,chemical oxygen demand(CODCr),ammonia(NH3-N),nitrate(NO-3-N) and NO-2-N present in the runoff from these areas. The result indicates that the concentration of contaminants decreases with the increasing of flow time.And the pollutions variations in traffic area are more complex.Event mean concentrations(EMC) is defined as the total pollution load divided by total runeff volume.The results indicated that the main contaminants of road runoff are TSS and CODCr.The highest EMCs are found in traffic area,then industrial and commercial areas.Residential areas have the lowest pollution level.The relative magnitude of EMC in June is higher than in March rainfall event,especially for the constituents of TSS and CODCr. The first flush phenomenon may be defined as the initial period of stormwater runoff during which the concentration of pollutants is substantially higher than during later stages.The result indicates that the magnitude of the first flush phenomenon was found to be greater for high intensity rainfall events(June 2004) and less for low-intensity ones(March 2004),and also greater for some pollutants(e.g.suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand) and less for others.Accordingly,the magnitude of the first flush phenomenon is characterized in the order of commercial areas > residential watershed > industrial watershed > traffic areas.

Key words: urban stormwater runoff pollution, temporal-spatial distribution, First Flush Effect, central Shanghai City