地理研究 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 314-322.doi: 10.11821/yj2008020009

• 地表过程研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

和田河流域灌(草)丛沙堆的形态特征与发育过程

武胜利, 李志忠, 惠 军, 葛 琳, 何牡丹   

  1. 新疆师范大学地理科学与旅游学院, 乌鲁木齐 830054
  • 收稿日期:2007-07-20 修回日期:2007-11-22 出版日期:2008-03-25 发布日期:2008-03-25
  • 作者简介:武胜利(1977-),男,河南省西平县人,博士。主要从事干旱区环境演变与风沙地貌方面的研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40461002;40761004)、新疆维吾尔自治区高校科研计划基金重点项目(XJEDU2004I35)共同资助。

The morphological characteristics and growth mode of nabkha in the basin of Hotan River, Xinjiang

WU Sheng-li, LI Zhi-zhong, HUI Jun, GE Lin, HE Mu-dan   

  1. College of Geography Science and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi 830054, China
  • Received:2007-07-20 Revised:2007-11-22 Online:2008-03-25 Published:2008-03-25
  • Supported by:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40461002;40761004)、新疆维吾尔自治区高校科研计划基金重点项目(XJEDU2004I35)共同资助。

摘要:

灌 (草)丛沙堆形态是由区域植物、风力和沙源相互作用塑造的一种动力平衡形态。本文在对新疆和田河流域灌 (草)丛沙堆野外考察、形态测量和统计分析的基础上,探讨了该区灌 (草)丛沙堆的形态变化规律和不同发育阶段的特征,结果表明:各种灌 (草)丛沙堆的长度、宽度与高度之间存在着较好的相关性,但不同种类灌 (草)丛沙堆以及同一类型沙堆在不同发育阶段的形态特征存在一定差异;基于沙堆形态特征的数学模型分析,并结合区域生态环境和风沙环境特点,可把灌 (草)丛沙堆发育划分为各形态指标协同变化的增长阶段,以植物动力影响为主、长宽尺度均衡发展、坡度较大的稳定阶段,以及沙堆长度相对缩短、各形态指标关系趋于复杂的风蚀衰退阶段。

关键词: 灌 (草)丛沙堆, 形态变化, 发育阶段, 和田河流域

Abstract:

Nabkha is a common kind of biological wind deposition geomorphy in arid and semi-humid desert, and sandy coast.The nabkha's form is a kind of dynamical balanced shape made by the interaction of regional plant, wind and sand in the specific developmental stage of nabkha. It can reflect eco-environmental characteristics and regularity of change in the region. In this paper, the change regularity and characteristics of nabkha's shape in different developmental stages have been discussed on the basis of statistical analysis on morphological data of nabkha surveyed in the basin of Hotan River, Xinjiang. Results indicate that there exist better correlations among length, width and altitude of all kinds of nabkhas, but there is difference in different developmental stages of the same typical nabkha and different typical nabkhas, and according to analysis on mathematical model of nabkha's morphological data, regional eco-environmental features and aeolian characteristics, the development of nabkha can be divided into the growing stage with all shape data covariation, the stabilizing stage with higher gradient, synergistic growth of length and width and plant being the main factor, and the declining stage with nabkha's length shortening and more complex relations among all morphological data. The long axis and short axis of all kinds of nabkhas are in synergic growth. The horizontal scale and height of nebkha show significant correlation. The geometric shape of nabkha is approximately semi-ellipsoid which has few difference in slope-length and slope-gradient between upward and leeward sides in the basin of Hotan River. At the growth stage, Tamarix nabkha mainly appears approximately conical, and at the mature and stable stage, it is approximately hemispherical. The shape of Phragmite nabkha is approximately semi-ellipsoid which has shorter and steeper upward slope and longer and lower gradient leeward slope. The shape of Alaghi nabkha presents approximately semi-ellipsoid which has longer and lower gradient upward slope and shorter and steeper leeward slope. The result can be a quantizing index for monitoring regional desertification or oasis enlarging.

Key words: nabkha, morphological change, growth stage, Hotan River basin