地理研究 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 449-458.doi: 10.11821/yj2008020022

• 旅游与文化 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游地生态安全测度分析——以九寨沟自然保护区为例

章锦河1, 张 捷2, 王 群1   

  1. 1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖 241000;
    2. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2007-07-29 修回日期:2007-10-15 出版日期:2008-03-25 发布日期:2008-03-25
  • 作者简介:章锦河(1970-),男,安徽望江人,教授,博士。主要从事旅游规划与管理、旅游生态与环境影响研究。E-mail:zhangjinhe818@263.net
  • 基金资助:

    安徽省人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目 (2005SK066ZD)、高校自然科学基金 (2005KJ017 )项目。

Measuring the ecological security of tourist destination: Methodology and a case study of Jiuzhaigou

ZHANG Jin-he1, ZHANG Jie2, WANG Qun1   

  1. 1. College of National Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China;
    2. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences of Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093,China
  • Received:2007-07-29 Revised:2007-10-15 Online:2008-03-25 Published:2008-03-25
  • Supported by:

    安徽省人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目 (2005SK066ZD)、高校自然科学基金 (2005KJ017 )项目。

摘要:

从人地关系安全、旅游生态伦理以及全球气候变化的视角,提出广义与狭义的旅游地生态安全概念,建立基于生态足迹的旅游地生态安全测度与评价模型,并以九寨沟为例,探讨旅游消费对旅游地区内与区际生态安全影响的特性。结果表明:(1)2004年九寨沟游客的旅游生态足迹总值为163514.0248hm2,人均旅游生态足迹为0.105190274hm2,居民的人均本底生态足迹为0.994925 hm2,同2002年比较,旅游生态足迹总值增加115.10%,人均旅游生态足迹增加72.44%,居民人均本底生态足迹增加3.47%。(2)2004年九寨沟旅游废弃物生态足迹总量为46960.5678hm2,约占旅游生态足迹总值的42.35%,其中旅游业的CO2排放量高达309455.66t,占旅游废弃物生态足迹的99.84%,加强旅游业发展对区域乃至全球气候变化影响的研究十分紧要。(3)2004年九寨沟的生态安全系数处于1.093158~1.159388之间,处于可持续发展的生态安全状态,九寨沟自然保护区发展旅游业对自身生态安全的影响小于对区际(全球)的生态安全影响。(4)未来游客量的增加、旅行市场半径的拓展、受旅游消费示范效应的影响而引起的居民消费方式的转变以及居民对自然环境资源依赖程度的加强态势,是影响九寨沟生态安全的主要因素。

关键词: 生态安全, 旅游生态足迹, 旅游地生态安全指数, 全球气候变化, 九寨沟

Abstract:

From the security of the relationship between human and nature, tourist ecological consumption characteristic and global climate change, this paper puts forward the conception of ecological security for tourist destination, and defines the conception in two ways by broad sense and narrow sense. Based on the theory and method of ecological footprint, it puts forward the ecological security measuring model, and taking the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR) as an example, it calculates and analyses the ecological security index and the intra and inter-regional impact on the JNNR in 2004. Four characteristics have been summarized: (1)The total tourist ecological footprint of the JNNR reaches 163514.0248hm2 in 2004, an increase of 115.1% in contrast to that of 2002; the per capita tourist ecological footprint is 0.105190274hm2 in 2004, an increase of 72.44%; the per capita residents ecological footprint of the JNNR is 0.994925hm2 in 2004, up by 3.47% compared with that of 0.9616hm2 in 2002.This indicates that tourism developed has produced some influence on the resident's consumption models.(2)The total tourist wastes ecological footprint of the JNNR is 46960.5678 hm2 in 2004,the per capita is 0.044543055 hm2,about 42.35% of the total tourist ecological footprint in 2004, and about 99.84% of the total tourist wastes ecological footprint are the CO2 emissions by the tourists. With the global climate change boiling up, the strict requirement of emission rights of CO2 and by international society, the rapidly developed trade market of CO2, and the high sensitivities to the CO2 about landscape of Jiuzhaigou, monitoring and research into various changes of CO2 for tourist destinations should be enhanced.(3)The ecological security index of the JNNR is from 1.093158 to 1.159388 in 2004, it is thus ecologically secure now, but the narrow sense of tourist destination ecological security index is higher than the broad sense, indicating that tourism development has not only exerted intra-regional but also interregional impact.(4)The increasing number of tourists, travel distance of tourists, changing consumption model of residents, and the increasing dependency on natural resources by local residents are the main factors influencing the ecological security of the JNNR in the future.

Key words: ecological security, tourist ecological footprint, ecological security index of tourist destination, global climate change, Jiuzhaigou