地理研究 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 527-535.doi: 10.11821/yj2008030006

• 地表过程研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北典型黑土区气候 、 地貌演化与黑土发育关系

崔 明1, 张旭东1, 蔡强国2, 王 勇3, 范昊明4, 周金星1   

  1. 1. 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所,北京,100091;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    3. 西南大学地理科学学院,重庆 400715;
    4. 沈阳农业大学 水利学院,沈阳 110161
  • 收稿日期:2007-08-02 修回日期:2008-03-05 出版日期:2008-05-25 发布日期:2008-05-25
  • 作者简介:崔明 ( 1979- )|女,辽宁人,助理研究员。研究方向为土壤侵蚀与GIS应用。 E-mail:flora_cm2007@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划973项目资助(2007CB407207)

Relationship between black soil development and climate change and geomorphological evolution in Northeast China

CUI Ming1, ZHANG Xu-dong1, CAI Qiang-guo2, WANG Yong3, FAN Hao-ming4, ZHOU Jinxing1   

  1. 1. Research Institute of Forestry, CAF, Beijing 100091, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. College of Geography Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 40075, China;
    4. College of Water Resources,Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China
  • Received:2007-08-02 Revised:2008-03-05 Online:2008-05-25 Published:2008-05-25
  • Supported by:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划973项目资助(2007CB407207)

摘要:

通过野外实地调查,利用地层学方法结合孢粉分析结果,研究了黑土区地层地貌的发育历史、地层序列以及古气候变化,重建黑土、黑钙土的发育历史及发育所需的地貌、气候条件。结果表明,黑土从温暖湿润的晚更新世早期便开始在嫩江的二、三级阶地上发育,而黑钙土则从全新世初开始在嫩江的一级阶地上发育,这时气候处于暖干期,且一级阶地地势较低,水位相对较高,容易接受上方高地淋洗下来的钙,从而在土壤中形成比较典型的淀积层。可见,地貌条件及气候因素对黑土、黑钙土的形成发育起到至关重要的作用。研究结果为黑土区的水土保持及土壤改良研究提供理论基础,同时为正确评估黑土层的侵蚀速率及制订合理的改良措施提供科学的参考。

关键词: 黑土, 黑钙土, 成土过程, 土壤侵蚀, 气候变化, 地貌演化

Abstract:

Soil on slopes of the gentle hilly black soil region in Northeast China, one of the most important bases of cash rice, degraded seriously after dozens of years of intensive cultivation. The thickness of soil humus layer becomes thinner and less fertile year after year. So it is very essential to deepen the researches of soil restoration and improvement after severe soil erosion. Analysis of main reasons for black soil degradation revealed that the cultivation activities halted the accumulation of organic matter and then baffled the soil development which cannot compensate the decrease of the thickness of soil humus layer caused by soil erosion. Soil developing process and conditions are the most important foundation for soil restoration. So the developing history of black soil and chernozem was reconstructed and the geomorphological and climatic factors, which were the key factors affecting the formation of black soil, were analyzed through studying both the formation time of the underlying strata and the local climate change history since the late Pleistocene. The conclusion is that black soil and chernozem formed in different periods, from early period of late Pleistocene and the beginning of Holocene respectively. The former period was warm and wet, while the latter period was warm and dry. And they formed in different places, the black soil was mainly distributed on the second and the third terraces and the chernozem on the first terrace of the Nenjiang River, which is lower than the distributing places of black soil and can accept more carbonate from the highland to form the characteristic illuvial layer. The processes of the soil formation were very slow, so it is hard to restore. These results provide important basis for forulating policies to improve the quality of soils in the region.

Key words: black soil, chernozem, process of soil formation, soil erosion, climate change, geomorphologic evolution