地理研究 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 1212-1220.doi: 10.11821/yj2008050024

• 水文与水资源 • 上一篇    

快速城市化地区水系结构变化特征——以深圳市为例

黄奕龙1, 王仰麟1, 刘珍环1, 曾祥坤1, 陈 朗2   

  1. 1. 北京大学 深圳研究生院, 深圳 518055;
    2. 深圳市水利规划设计院, 深圳 518036
  • 收稿日期:2007-09-04 修回日期:2008-05-29 出版日期:2008-09-25 发布日期:2008-09-25
  • 作者简介:黄奕龙(1975-), 男, 广东翁源人, 博士, 副研究员。研究领域:景观生态、城市地理。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635028);中国博士后科学基金资助项目(2005037282)

Stream construction characteristics in rapid urbanization area: Shenzhen city as a case

HUANG Yi-long1, WANG Yang-lin1, LIU Zhen-huan1, ZENG Xiang-kun1, CHEN Lang2   

  1. 1. Shenzhen Graduated School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China;
    2. Shenzhen Institute for Water Resource Planning and Design, Shenzhen 518036, China
  • Received:2007-09-04 Revised:2008-05-29 Online:2008-09-25 Published:2008-09-25
  • Supported by:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635028);中国博士后科学基金资助项目(2005037282)

摘要:

为了探讨城市化对水系结构的影响,应用深圳市1982、2002年的二期水系详查图,定量分析了水系长度、密度、分枝比、分枝能力和分维数等参数的变化特征。结果表明: 快速城市化过程中, 深圳市的河道总长度减少、密度减小, 河道数目减少, 特别是低级别的支流减少较多; 河道的分枝比和分枝能力都有不同程度的弱化, 单个水系片区和全市的河流分维数都下降,河流具有简单化的趋势, 河流的多元化特征削弱; 对于不同水系片区来说, 其变化速度不同, 表明城市化过程对水系结构的干扰存在空间差异性。建议强力推进河流的蓝线规划和滨水区的开发管理, 将水网的保护和规划纳入到城市规划的管理范围; 注重在开发利用中的保护, 减少各类新建城市用地、农用地整理过程中对水系的破坏; 加大水土保持力度, 减少因水土流失导致河流淤塞; 加强管理, 严禁向河道中倾倒垃圾。

关键词: 快速城市化, 水系结构, 自相似性, 深圳市

Abstract:

Urban River is an important part of urban ecosystem. There are close relationship between stream construction and its ecological function. The form and evolution of stream construction is controlled by geology, topography, soil, climate, vegetation and human activity at local area. At present, human activity, especially urbanization has become the major factor influencing the stream structure. In order to study the effect of urbanization on stream construction, taking Shenzhen city, a rapid urbanization area as a case, which is one of the most rapid urbanization areas in China, by using Strahler classification and Horton laws, this paper analyzed the effect of urbanization on stream length, stream density, bifurcation ratio of rivers, ability of bifurcation of rivers and fractal dimension etc. The result exhibited that: (1) The stream length, stream density and stream number all decreased, especially for the lower order stream from 1982 to 2002. and (2) the ratio and ability of bifurcation decreased of all the watersheds. The stream construction was simplified with time. The fractal dimension of stream construction also decreased with time. (3) The stream construction changing characteristic was different for different watersheds due to the effect of urbanization level. This paper suggested: (1) to improve planning and implement blue-line, strengthen the management of river net and add it to the content of urban planning and managing; (2) to protect the stream in the process of land use change; and (3) to strengthen the control of soil and water erosion, thus decrease the yield of river sediments.

Key words: rapid urbanization, stream construction, fractal dimension, Shenzhen city