地理研究 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 1308-1320.doi: 10.11821/yj2008060010

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生态足迹的中亚区域生态安全评价

吉力力·阿不都外力, 木巴热克·阿尤普   

  1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2008-07-08 修回日期:2008-09-23 出版日期:2008-11-25 发布日期:2008-11-25
  • 作者简介:吉力力·阿不都外力(1964-),男,维吾尔族,新疆拜城人,研究员,2005年俄罗斯莫斯科大学获博士学位。从事地理生态学方面的研究工作,国内外发表文章40余篇。E-mail:jilil@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-307,KZCX3-SW-355);国家自然科学基金资助项目(40671170)

Regional ecological security assessment on Central Asia based on ecological footprint analysis

Jilili Abuduwaili, Mubareke Ayoupu   

  1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2008-07-08 Revised:2008-09-23 Online:2008-11-25 Published:2008-11-25
  • Supported by:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-307,KZCX3-SW-355);国家自然科学基金资助项目(40671170)

摘要:

利用生态足迹理论与方法,运用生态足迹压力指数模型,对中亚不同区域的生态安全进行了评价。分别测算中亚四国的人均与区域总生态足迹、生态承载力、生态赤字和生态足迹压力指数。最后按照生态足迹压力指数来评价中亚各国生态安全状态。评价结果如下:(1)吉尔吉斯坦14年平均生态赤字为0.0900ha/capita;平均生态足迹压力指数为0.9388,处于稍不安全状态。(2)土库曼斯坦的多年平均生态赤字为0.3303 ha/capita;平均生态足迹压力指数为1.1327;哈萨克斯坦的多年平均生态赤字为0.8379 ha/capita,平均生态足迹压力指数为1.2320,都处于较不安全状态 。(3)乌兹别克斯坦的区域总承载力由1994年的28807119ha下降到2005年的28527138ha,而区域总生态足迹有所增加,即从44598092ha增加到51761368ha;多年平均生态赤字为0.8181 ha/capita;平均生态足迹压力指数为1.7540,处于相对很不安全状态。根据计算结果,中亚4国的多年平均生态安全都处于不安全状态,但不安全程度有所差别,吉尔吉斯坦的生态安全处于相对较好状态,其次为土库曼斯坦,哈萨克斯坦;乌兹别克斯坦的生态安全相对其他中亚国家而言处于相对很不安全状态。

关键词: 中亚, 生态足迹, 生态承载力, 生态足迹压力指数, 生态安全评价

Abstract:

The world natural resources have been depleted both on quantity and types with the increase of population and economic development in recent decades and the regional ecological security problem is getting more and more serious. Central Asia is not only the neighboring region of China, but also has the similar climate characteristics, physical geographic settings and even the same ecological environmental problems of the arid zone of north easternpart of China. Both countries belong to ecological environment's fragile region in the world. In this paper, four different regions of Central Asia's per capita and regional total ecological footprint, ecological capacity, ecological deficit and ecological footprint pressure index (EFPI) were calculated and analyzed based on the concept and method of ecological footprint. And according to EFPI, the assessment on the ecological security of different regions in Central Asia was made. The analytical results showed that :1) the mean ecological deficit of Kirghizstan from 1992 to 2005 is 0.0900 ha/capita and mean EFPI is 0.9388, on the slightly unsafe ecological status.2) The long period mean ecological deficit and EFPI of Turkmenistan and Kazakstan are 0.3303 ha/capita, 0.8379 and 1.1327 ha/capita , 1.2320 respectively, with both regions on the relatively unsafe ecological status.3)The regional total ecological capacity of Ozbekstan decreased from 28807119 ha in 1992 to 28527138 ha in 2005,and total regional ecological footprint presented an increasing trend; the mean EFPI is 1.7540,on the unsafe ecological status. Based on the calculation results, Kirghizstan's ecological environment is relatively good compared with other regions in Central Asia, followed by Turkmenistan and Kazakstan, and the last one is Ozbekstan. In a word, all these four central Asia nations are in the unsafe ecological environment condition, only the unsafe degrees are different. This study results would have academic value for the comparative analysis of the ecological security or sustainable development assessment of other arid and semi-arid regions in China or in the world.

Key words: Central Asia, ecological footprint, ecological capacity, ecological footprint pressure index, ecological security assessment