地理研究 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 74-84.doi: 10.11821/yj2009010010

• 水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

植被生态用水结构及绿水资源消耗效用——以黄河三门峡地区为例

王玉娟1, 杨胜天1, 刘昌明2,3, 戴 东4, 郑东海1, 曾红娟1   

  1. 1. 遥感科学国家重点实验室,北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 环境遥感与数字城市北京市重点实验室,北京 100875;
    2. 北京师范大学水科学研究院,北京 100875;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    4. 黄河水利委员会水文局, 郑州 450004
  • 收稿日期:2008-07-02 修回日期:2008-11-21 发布日期:2010-11-20
  • 作者简介:王玉娟(1981-),女,山东临沂人,博士研究生。主要研究方向为环境科学、水文水资源遥感。 E-mail:wyjuan_002@163.com 通讯作者 : 杨胜天 (1965-)|男,教授,博士生导师。从事遥感和GIS应用研究。Email:yangshengtian@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目 (2006BAB06B07);国家自然科学基金项目(40671123)

The analysis on the pattern of eco-water use of vegetation and the availability of green water in Sanmenxia area of Yellow River

WANG Yu-juan1, YANG Sheng-tian1, LIU Chang-ming2,3, DAI Dong4, ZHENG Dong-hai1, ZENG Hong-juan1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Institute of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    4. Hydrological Office of Yellow River Conservancy Committee, Zhengzhou 450004, China
  • Received:2008-07-02 Revised:2008-11-21 Published:2010-11-20
  • Supported by:

    国家科技支撑计划项目 (2006BAB06B07);国家自然科学基金项目(40671123)

摘要:

以黄河三门峡地区为研究对象,构建适用于流域尺度植被生态用水估算的生态水文模型,对三门峡地区20世纪50年代以来植被生态用水量进行了定量模拟,得到研究区植被生态用水时空结构差异。在此基础上,对三门峡地区不同植被类型绿水资源消耗效用进行了分析,提出该区域植被结构调整方案。结果表明:三门峡地区植被生态用水量自20世纪50年代以来,由于气候和土地利用状况的变化,总体呈现出降低-稳定-上升的趋势;生态用水空间结构主要表现在不同植被类型下生态用水量差异上:林地最大,其次为农作物、灌丛,草地最小;林地高效消耗比例最大,其次为草地和灌丛,农用地最小。基于不同植被类型绿水资源消耗效用分析,提出三门峡地区植被结构调整方案。在一定水资源消耗量状况下,减少无效和低效消耗量,增加高效消耗量,是缓解该地区生产、生活、生态用水矛盾,提高总体生态效益的重要途径。

关键词: 植被生态用水, 绿水资源消耗效用, 黄河三门峡

Abstract:

In recent years, regional vegetation water use has been a new and "hot" field in ecology, hydrology and water resources, especially in the arid and semiarid regions. Economic development of the Yellow River Basin is based upon energy, heavy chemical industry, grain and cotton. These activities, combined with climate change, have resulted in a shortage of water resources. In this paper, an eco-hydrological model was constructed to simulate the regional vegetation water use. The patterns of eco-water use by vegetation in Sanmenxia area of the Yellow River were studied using RS and GIS technology, TM data, meteorological data, observed data and vegetation and soil texture information. On the basis of the patterns of regional vegetation water use, the availability of green water are analyzed for different vegetation types. The results are as follows: due to the variation of climate and land cover, the eco-water use of vegetation has had a trend of decreasing-stable-increasing in Sanmenxia area since the 1950s; different vegetation types have different patterns. Forest, shrub, grass and farmland were chosen to compare eco-water amount, indicating forest>corn field>shrub>grass. Among them, the forest has the highest utility of green water, followed by grassland, shrub and farmland. Based on these calculations and analyses, the countermeasures suggested for high-efficiency use of water and land resources are: to adjust vegetation structure and crops structure to realize optimal allocation of water resources.

Key words: ecological water use of vegetation, green water availability, Sanmenxia