地理研究 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 583-591.doi: 10.11821/yj2009030003

• 地表过程研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土丘陵沟壑区坡面产流能力及影响因素研究

方海燕1, 蔡强国1, 李秋艳2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2. 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2008-09-14 修回日期:2009-03-18 出版日期:2009-05-25 发布日期:2009-05-25
  • 作者简介:方海燕( 1977- ),男,山东省金乡县人,博士,助理研究员。主要从事土壤侵蚀、水土保持和GIS应用等方面研究。E-mail:fanghy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中科院院长奖获得者科研启动专项"中国典型水土流失区水沙关系尺度效应及地带性研究"、国家重点基础研究发展计划资助(2007CB407207)和国家自然科学基金资助项目(30671721)

Study on the runoff generation capacity of slope surface and its influencing factors in a hilly loess region on the Loess Plateau

FANG Hai-yan1, CAI Qiang-guo1, LI Qiu-yan2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2008-09-14 Revised:2009-03-18 Online:2009-05-25 Published:2009-05-25
  • Supported by:

    中科院院长奖获得者科研启动专项"中国典型水土流失区水沙关系尺度效应及地带性研究"、国家重点基础研究发展计划资助(2007CB407207)和国家自然科学基金资助项目(30671721)

摘要:

坡面是黄土高原土壤侵蚀的重要来源,本文以团山沟流域的7个径流场9年的降雨-径流事件,对不同坡面和降雨特征下径流系数随坡面的变化进行了研究。结果表明,研究区存在降雨强度大、持续时间短的A型雨、降雨强度小持续时间长的C型雨以及居于二者之间的B型雨。不同雨型下坡面产流能力大小为A型雨>B型雨>C型雨,而产流尺度效应则为C型雨>B型雨>A型雨。坡度一定,A型雨下随着坡面长度增加产流能力先增加后减小,径流系数峰值出现在坡长为40m的坡面上,B型和C型雨坡面产流能力随坡面长度的增加而增加;坡长一定,峁坡区坡面产流能力随着坡度的增加而增加;A型雨下沟坡产流能力最小,而在B型和C型雨下,坡面产流能力相对有所提高。

关键词: 黄土丘陵沟壑区, 降雨类型, 坡面, 径流系数, 尺度效应

Abstract:

Slope surface is the most important sediment source area in basins on the Loess Plateau, and it is of great significance to the study on runoff generation capacity influenced by rainfall and slope surface characteristics. Seven runoff plots, located on the shady side of Tuanshangou Gully in hilly loess region on the Loess Plateau, were selected in this paper, using nine years of dataset, and the changing rule of runoff coefficients on different slope surfaces were studied in the context of different rainfall regimes. According to rainfall depth, rainfall duration, and rainfall intensity, the nine years of rainfalls in the study area were classified into three regimes through K-means clustering in SPSS software, i.e. rainfall regime A with high rainfall intensity, short duration and high occurring frequency, rainfall regime C with low rainfall intensity, long duration and low occurring frequency, and B the medium. Studies found that, for each of the study plots, runoff coefficients induced by rainfall regime A were the highest, and those induced by rainfall regime C the lowest. However, scale effect on runoff induced by rainfall regime A was the least, and that induced by rainfall regime C the largest. In slope Mao region, given the same slope degree, runoff coefficients firstly increased, and then decreased, and a peak value occurred for rainfall regime A on the slope surfaces of Nos.2-4 plots, however, runoff coefficients increased with increasing slope lengths for rainfall regimes B and C. For the slope surfaces of Nos.1, 4, and 5 plots that have the same slope length, under all the three rainfall regimes, runoff coefficients increased with increasing slope gradients. Entering gully slope area, runoff plot No.6 had the lowest coefficient in the condition of rainfall regime A and those induced with rainfall regimes B and C had higher values. For entire slope surface of No.7 plot, runoff coefficients induced by the three rainfall regimes had the medium values.

Key words: hilly loess region on the Loess Plateau, rainfall regime, slope surface, runoff coefficient, scale effect