地理研究 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 653-662.doi: 10.11821/yj2009030010

• 气候与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国夏季高温日数时空变化及其环流背景

雷杨娜, 龚道溢, 张自银, 郭 栋, 何学兆   

  1. 北京师范大学 减灾与应急管理研究院, 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2008-05-20 修回日期:2008-09-17 出版日期:2009-05-25 发布日期:2009-05-25
  • 作者简介:雷杨娜,(1983-),女,陕西渭南人,硕士研究生。专业:自然地理学,研究方向:气候变化及其影响评价。E-mail:lyn0913@ires.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家973项目基金(2006CB400505,NSFC-40675035),国家科技支撑计划课题(2007BAC29B02)和公益性行业科研专项项目(GYHY20070610)资助。

Spatial-temporal characteristics of high-temperature events in summer in eastern China and the associated atmospheric circulation

LEI Yang-na, GONG Dao-yi, ZHANG Zi-yin, GUO Dong, HE Xue-zhao   

  1. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Process and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2008-05-20 Revised:2008-09-17 Online:2009-05-25 Published:2009-05-25
  • Supported by:

    国家973项目基金(2006CB400505,NSFC-40675035),国家科技支撑计划课题(2007BAC29B02)和公益性行业科研专项项目(GYHY20070610)资助。

摘要:

本研究利用1955~2005年全国193个气象站点夏季(5~9月)逐日最高气温资料,分析了我国东部地区夏季高温日数变化的空间分布特征和时间变化规律。经验正交函数分析结果显示高温日数的变化有明显的区域特征,第一模态表现为区域整体一致的异常,中心区位于长江中下游地区,第二模态表现为江淮流域与华南反向变化的特点,第三模态表现为东南部地区与西南、华北的反向变化。这些模态与高层大气环流的变化有关。分析表明ENSO(厄尔尼诺-南方涛动)、赤道印度洋和西太平洋暖池海温,可以通过影响西太平洋和东亚地区大气环流而影响我国夏季高温日数频次,其中ENSO和西太平洋暖池区海温对高温日数变化第一模态的相关比较明显;而热带印度洋海温对第二模态有显著影响。与前期海温的关系分析可知,第一模态与前期夏季的西太平洋暖池和前期冬季赤道东太平洋海温相关关系最好,第二模态则受热带印度洋前期冬季海温影响最大,这对高温预测具有指示意义。

关键词: 夏季高温, 经验正交函数分析, 大气环流, 海温

Abstract:

Based on the data for 193 meteorological observation stations in eastern China from 1955 to 2005, the authors analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of summer high-temperature events (daily maximum temperature above 35℃). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis reveals that there are three main patterns for the high-temperature events. The first EOF pattern is Characterized by a uniform anomaly over the whole east China with a center along the Yangtze River valley.The second is a dipole pattern with two centers in southernmost China and the areas to north, and the third mode shows an out of phase pattern between east and west parts of the area. These patterns are tightly related to the atmospheric circulation. The results show that ENSO, Equatorial Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Warm Pool SST could affect the frequency of summer high temperature by influencing the Western Pacific and East Asia atmospheric circulation. ENSO and Western Pacific Warm Pool have a great impact on the first EOF. And the relationship between the second EOF and Equatorial Indian Ocean SST is a significantly negative correlation. The relations between high temperature and the preceding SST of "key regions" are studied; there are evident positive correlations between the preceding summer SST of Western Pacific Warm Pool and the first EOF, which is negatively correlated with the preceding winter SST of Equatorial East Pacific. And the second EOF is most impacted by the preceding winter SST of Equatorial Indian Ocean.

Key words: summer high temperature, EOF analysis method, atmospheric circulation, SST