地理研究 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 1327-1340.doi: 10.11821/yj2009050019

• 城市与乡村 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于居住区比较的北京城市通勤研究

张 艳, 柴彦威   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院城市与经济地理系,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2009-03-02 修回日期:2009-06-15 出版日期:2009-09-25 发布日期:2009-09-25
  • 作者简介:张艳(1984-),女,博士研究生,中国地理学会会员。主要研究方向为城市社会地理和行为地理。 E-mail:zhangyan2007@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40671058,40801056)。

Characteristics of commuting pattern in Beijing: Based on the comparison of different urban residential areas

ZHANG Yan, CHAI Yan-wei   

  1. Department of Urban and Economic Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2009-03-02 Revised:2009-06-15 Online:2009-09-25 Published:2009-09-25
  • Supported by:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40671058,40801056)。

摘要:

改革开放以来,伴随城市土地与住房市场化改革逐渐推进、郊区化与城市空间扩张不断加快、单位制度及单位大院的解体等,北京城市内部居住与就业的空间组织正经历着显著变化,从而导致通勤问题的产生以及城市通勤格局的显著变化。本文基于对北京市内10个典型居住区中600个家庭、842位就业居民的日常通勤行为问卷调查数据,比较城市内部不同居住地域居民通勤格局的差异性,以期折射北京市居住与就业空间重构的微观过程。研究表明:(1)城市内部不同居住区居民的通勤行为存在显著差异性;(2)不同类型单位居住区通勤格局呈现出明显的分化;(3)老城区旧居住区中相当比例的长距离逆向通勤,以及郊区新建商品房以及政策性住房居住区中较高比例的长距离内向通勤,反映城市职住分离现象的出现。

关键词: 通勤行为, 通勤格局, 职住关系, 居住区比较, 北京市

Abstract:

Since the reform and opening up, with the deepening reform of urban land and housing market, the process of rapid suburbanization and urban sprawl as well as the disintegration of danwei system, great changes have taken place on jobs-housing spatial origination of Beijing, which has already led to commuting problems and changes of urban commuting pattern. Based on the survey of 600 households in ten typical residential areas of Beijing, this paper describes basic features of commuting behavior of Beijing citizens, and focuses on the comparison of the disparity of commuting pattern by four types of residential areas, trying to reflect the micro process of jobs-housing relationship changes. Our study shows that, firstly, besides the obvious differences in different socio-economic groups, they also lie in different types of residential areas. Secondly, significant differentiation has existed between different danwei communities. The vicinity of home and work has gradually been broken with the non-danwei employees moved into danwei community and the moving out of danwei production function, which has made the commuting pattern more complicated. Thirdly, the facts that about one fourth surveyed residents in hutong community in central city who are experiencing long distance outward commuting, as well as a higher proportion of residents in commercial housing community and subsidized commercial housing community in suburbs experiencing long distance inward commuting, may show that the separation of home and work has already come into being.

Key words: commuting behavior, commuting pattern, jobs-housing relationship, comparison by types of residential areas, Beijing