地理研究 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 1389-1400.doi: 10.11821/yj2009050024

• 经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国铁路客运网络可达性空间格局

吴 威, 曹有挥, 梁双波, 曹卫东   

  1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-24 修回日期:2009-04-18 出版日期:2009-09-25 发布日期:2009-09-25
  • 作者简介:吴威(1976-),男,安徽歙县人,博士。主要从事区域经济与运输地理研究。 E-mail:wudp1976@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所领域前沿项目(CXNIGLAS200808);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(kzcx2-yw-321)

The accessibility pattern of railway passenger transport network in China

WU Wei, CAO You-hui, LIANG Shuang-bo, CAO Wei-dong   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
  • Received:2009-01-24 Revised:2009-04-18 Online:2009-09-25 Published:2009-09-25
  • Supported by:

    中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所领域前沿项目(CXNIGLAS200808);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(kzcx2-yw-321)

摘要:

基于铁路客运的基本特点,文章采用空间距离、时间距离、连接性、可选择性等多项指标对我国铁路客运网络可达性空间格局进行了分析。各项指标侧重点不同导致其反映的空间格局的明显差异。空间、时间距离指标均呈现以郑州为核心的中心-外围格局,但前者由中心向外围呈环状各向同性衰减,后者表现为各向异性,沿若干铁路干线衰减速度较慢; 连接性指标中东部地区优于西部,中心地区优于边缘,而可选择性指标东西分异显著,京广线以东(含京广沿线)地区明显优于西部地区。从空间均衡角度,主要体现铁路客运基本服务的空间距离、时间距离、连接性三指标相对较好,但偏重于高级服务的可选择性空间分布相对不均衡。主要铁路枢纽中,北京、上海、郑州、武汉等全国性铁路枢纽可达性明显优于广州、成都、兰州和沈阳等区域性枢纽。

关键词: 空间距离, 时间距离, 连接性, 可选择性, 空间格局, 中国铁路客运网络

Abstract:

Based on the characteristics of railway passenger transport, choosing the spatial distance, temporal distance, connectivity and selectivity as the indicators, with the province capitals and the train timetable as the object, the accessibility pattern of railway passenger transport network is elaborated in this paper. The dominant factors affecting the indicators are different, which lead to the difference of accessibility pattern denoted by each indicator. The core-periphery pattern are showed in both the spatial and temporal distance, and Zhengzhou is the center with the best accessibility in both two indicators, but the attenuation of accessibility takes on different rules from the core to the periphery. The former is isotropic in the decrease of accessibility, but the later is anisotropic, and those nodes along the main railways are slower in the decrease of accessibility. The central and eastern China is superior to the western area, and the central area is superior to the marginal area in the connectivity index. As far as the selectivity is concerned, the difference between the east and the west is apparent, the area east of the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway is superior to the west area, and those nodes with the worst selectivity level spread at the marginal area of western China. In equilibrium, the spatial distance, temporal distance and the connectivity, which reflect mainly the basic service of railway passenger transport, are better than the selectivity that focuses on the senior service. Beijing, Shanghai, Zhengzhou, and Wuhan are railway hubs in the whole network, and Beijing and Zhengzhou are better than Shanghai and Wuhan in accessibility. According to the formational reasons, Beijing and Shanghai are the functional hubs, while Zhengzhou and Wuhan belong to the location hubs. There are four regional railway hubs, Shenyang, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Lanzhou, which play important roles in sub-railway network. In accessibility, Shenyang and Guangzhou are better than Chengdu and Lanzhou.

Key words: spatial distance, temporal distance, connectivity, selectivity, railway passenger transport network, China