地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 361-372.doi: 10.11821/yj2010020018

• 经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北地区煤炭城市脆弱性与可持续发展模式

李博1, 佟连军2, 韩增林1   

  1. 1. 辽宁师范大学海洋经济与可持续发展研究中心,辽宁 大连116029;
    2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,吉林 长春 130012
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-18 修回日期:2009-07-15 出版日期:2010-02-20 发布日期:2010-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 佟连军(1960~),吉林省人,研究员,博士生导师。E-mail: tonglj@neigae.ac.cn E-mail:tonglj@neigae.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李博(1982-),男,吉林省人,博士研究生。主要研究方向为环境与发展。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40571041),国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635030)

Vulnerability and sustainable development model of coal-mining cities in Northeast China

LI Bo1, TONG Lian-jun2, HAN Zeng-lin1   

  1. 1. Study Center of Marine Economy and Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China;
    2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun 130012, China
  • Received:2009-01-18 Revised:2009-07-15 Online:2010-02-20 Published:2010-02-20

摘要:

采用实地走访调研以及座谈等方式对东北地区煤炭城市的脆弱性状况进行定性的诊断,利用东北地区煤炭城市2000年和2005年统计数据进行脆弱性的定量分析。研究表明:①自然系统的脆弱性表现在先天的不稳定和敏感性、水资源破坏、大气污染、土地和森林资源的破坏、固体废弃物的堆积等方面;②经济系统的脆弱性表现在资源储量、产业结构、企业生产能力、技术创新等方面;③社会系统的脆弱性表现在产业结构单一造成的就业结构和劳动技能的缺乏,以及再就业的难度大;④对东北地区煤炭城市的脆弱性进行类型分异,2000年,研究区域除鹤岗市较低脆弱之外,其余城市均属于中度脆弱区;2005年,研究区域均转变为中度脆弱区;⑤总结出东北地区煤炭城市可持续发展的四种模式,即综合型发展模式、期待型培育模式、接续型发展模式和创建和谐社会模式。

关键词: 东北地区, 煤炭城市, 脆弱性, 可持续

Abstract:

The development of coal-mining cities in Northeast China is the hot topic which the country pays attention to. The article carries out the vulnerability appraisal of coal-mining cities in Northeast China from three levels of natural system, economic system, social system and from three description angles of exposure, sensitivity, and resilience. In 2000, Hegang city belongs to relatively low vulnerability district, and other coal-mining cities belong to intermediate ones. In 2005, all the coal-mining cities belong to intermediate vulnerability districts, in which vulnerability indexes in Jixi and Qitaihe cities are nearly 0.5701 and 0.5568, respectively. At the same time, it points out the vulnerability phenomenon, the approach to reduce vulnerability and diagnoses the vulnerability of natural system, economic system and social system, as well as the existing problems. Vulnerability of natural system is presented in ecological environment deterioration, water pollution, air pollution and forest resource destruction. Culture and community employment structure in coal-mining cities closely relate to urban economic structure and shortage of labor skills of mining industry, which have aggravated the unemployment and the difficulty of re-employment. Besides, the high pressure causes urban poverty and disadvantaged groups to get jobs, which have caused social vulnerability. Some other problems may cause the economic vulnerability, such as the unreasonable resource utilization, unreasonable productivity distribution and single industrial structure, Regional natural system, economic system and society system affect each other. This article discusses the coupling mechanism from the aspects of ecology, humanity and society. The intrinsic agents which affect the coal-mining cities are the limited resources and the changed exploitation capacity, and they are the key aspects to restrict vulnerability of human-land system. Then some models are put forward to reduce vulnerability, such as comprehensive development model, anticipation cultivation model, connection development model and harmonious society model. Finally, it puts forward some sustainable development countermeasures which provide the valuable reference for the reforming, ecology construction and community development of coal-mining cities. Besides, it is suggested that the development model could be built for coal-mining cities specifically in different development stages and vulnerability phenomenon.

Key words: Northeast China, coal-mining city, vulnerability, sustainable development