地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 617-628.doi: 10.11821/yj2010040005

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

污灌农田土壤动物及其对重金属污染的响应——以开封市化肥河污灌区为例

杜习乐1,2,3, 马建华3, 吕昌河1, 李文军3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039;
    3. 河南大学资源与环境研究所,开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-14 修回日期:2009-05-24 出版日期:2010-04-20 发布日期:2010-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 马建华(1958-),男,教授,博士生导师。主要从事自然地理学和环境土壤学研究。 E-mail:mjh@henu.edu.cn E-mail:mjh@henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:杜习乐(1980-),男,河南获嘉人,博士研究生。主要从事土地变化与土壤环境等方面的研究。 E-mail:duxl.08b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40671007)

Soil animals and their responses to soil heavy metal pollution in sewage irrigated farmland: A case study of the sewage irrigated area of Huafei River, Kaifeng City

DU Xi-le1,2,3, MA Jian-hua3, LU Chang-he1, LI Wen-jun3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Institute of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
  • Received:2009-01-14 Revised:2009-05-24 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-20

摘要:

开封市化肥河污灌区土壤重金属(Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Ni)含量明显高于对照区,Cd含量超标严重。采用内梅罗指数法将污灌区土壤重金属污染分为轻污染、中污染和重污染3种类型。在此基础上,运用生态分析和统计分析的方法,研究了污灌区不同重金属污染样点的土壤动物个体与种群特征。结果表明:(1)污灌区土壤动物优势种群为线虫和等节跳科,总的个体数量和种群数量春季(分别为3158只和74种)均多于秋季(分别为1963只和57种)。(2)3种不同污染级别土壤中,土壤动物种群数量春季均少于秋季,春季样点间的种群相似性低于秋季。(3)土壤动物水平分布受重金属污染的影响较大,污染土壤与对照土壤中土壤动物数量有显著差异;重金属污染严重的样点,土壤动物的表聚性较低。(4)土壤动物密度-种群指数(DG)秋季大于春季,春秋两季都随重金属综合污染指数的增大而降低。(5)土壤动物对重金属污染的响应表现为个体数量较种群数量明显,水平分布较垂直分布明显,春季较秋季明显。

关键词: 重金属污染, 土壤动物, 空间分布, 多样性, 季节差异

Abstract:

The sewage irrigated area of Huafei River is located in the eastern suburbs of Kaifeng City, Henan Province. Soil animals were collected twice in spring and autumn of 2007. Soil macrofauna were collected by hand-sorting method, small and medium-sized soil animals were collected by Tullgren funnel method and humidogene soil animals were collected by Baermann funnel method. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in spring of 2007, and five heavy metals ( Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni ) and main soil properties ( pH, organic matter content and texture ) were analyzed using the corresponding national standard methods. According to heavy metal pollution, soils in the sewage irrigation area were divided into three types of different pollution levels. Further, soil animal distributions, soil animal group characteristics, and their responses to soil pollution were analyzed by use of ecological analysis and statistical analysis methods. The research results showed that: (1)Throughout the sewage irrigated area, Nemata and Isotomidae were dominant groups. The number of soil animals in spring was 3158 heads, much more than 1963 heads in autumn, and the number of groups performed similarly, with 74 species in spring and 57 species in autumn.(2)However, in soils of three different pollution levels the group number of spring was less than that of autumn. Similarity coefficients of groups between sampling sites were higher in spring than that in autumn. (3)Heavy metal pollution had a great influence on the horizontal distribution of soil animals, which resulted in a significant difference of soil animal quantities between polluted soil and control soil. The more serious the pollution was, the lower the surface aggregation of soil animals was. (4)The heavy metals pollution resulted in a decline of the density-group index, which was bigger in autumn than in spring. (5) The responses of the soil animals to heavy metals pollution showed that: the individual number was more sensitive than the group number, the horizontal distribution was more significant than the vertical distribution, and their responses were more obvious in spring than in autumn.

Key words: heavy metal pollution, soil animals, spatial distribution of soil animals, soil animal diversity, seasonal difference