地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 693-702.doi: 10.11821/yj2010040012

• 城市与乡村 • 上一篇    下一篇

快速城市化下 "转型社区"空间改造的障碍——广州、深圳案例

刘宣   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2009-04-29 修回日期:2009-09-10 出版日期:2010-04-20 发布日期:2010-04-20
  • 作者简介:刘宣(1980-),女,湖南人,讲师。研究方向为土地利用与规划、城市地理。 Email: liuxuan3@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金 (40901084);教育部留学归国人员研究基金(2008);中山大学青年教师启动基金(2007-2008)

On the hampers of redevelopment of 'Transitional Community&rsquo|under the high-speed urbanization in China: Cases in Guangzhou and Shenzhen

LIU Xuan   

  1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2009-04-29 Revised:2009-09-10 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-20

摘要:

城中村在土地利用、建设景观、规划管理、社区文化等方面均表现出强烈的城乡差异及矛盾。近年来,我国部分地区采取了"转制"的措施来消除"城中村"的城乡二元结构,形成了兼具城市与乡村社区特征的"转型社区",——人口由农民转为市民、土地由集体所有转为国有、经济由集体经济转为股份公司、管理由村委会转居委会——其空间改造也提上日程。从"转型社区"的土地利用问题出发,介绍目前常用的"转型社区"改造模式,并分别从"转型社区"内土地产权和使用主体分析转制后依然存在甚至加剧的改造障碍。研究认为,土地的伪国有化定义下的不完全产权、土地非法与合法混杂导致的用地破碎化和现有利益格局下各土地利用主体的成本与收益失衡导致"转型社区"内公共设施缺乏、土地价值过低且被过度利用的状态难以改变。以此为基础,提出了对"转型社区"改造的建议。

关键词: 转型社区, 改造障碍, 土地产权, 使用主体

Abstract:

Facing the huge gaps between the urban villages and urban area around them in land use efficiency, landscape, social life and planning control, local developmental states initiate institutional transition—land ownership is changed from collective owned to state owned land, villagers are admitted as citizens and collectives are reorganized as companies to manage their assets. 'Transitional Communities’ thus emerged. Simultaneously, redevelopment of the physical environment of transitional communities is launched. This research aims at identifying the existing problems of land use in transitional communities, and analyzing the hampers for redevelopment. It has been revealed that institutional transition has not eliminated the hampers for redevelopment but aggravated them. This conclusion is based on three facts as follows: 1. land ownership of new 'state-owned land' is incomplete, and could not promote land users to redevelop; 2. legal and illegal land is interwoven, increasing the cost for land assembly and redevelopment; 3. cost and revenue for land use in 'transitional communities' are disequilibrium for different land users, causing the low proportion of public facility provision by the collectives, the high density development of villager houses and low quality of factories and workshops. According to this, the research suggests that, 1. local governments should provide public facilities in which collectives could hardly burden and reclaim the cost by introducing public facility tax, etc.; 2. the governments should punish the former urban villagers for illegal housing development to avoid overuse of the land; 3. complete property rights should be offered to land in 'transitional community' to increase the value of the land and crease incentive for higher and better development; 4. redevelopment area could cover not only previously collective owned land but also some state owned land to make overall plans and take all factors into consideration for redevelopment.

Key words: transitional community, hamper to redevelopment, land property rights, land users