地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 703-715.doi: 10.11821/yj2010040013

• 城市与乡村 • 上一篇    下一篇

南京市不同社会群体的贫困集聚度、贫困特征及其决定因素

何深静1, 刘玉亭2, 吴缚龙3   

  1. 1. 中山大学城市与区域规划系,广州 510275;
    2. 华南理工大学建筑学院, 亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室, 广州 510641;
    3. 卡迪夫大学城市与区域规划学院, 卡迪夫CF10 3WA, 英国
  • 收稿日期:2009-06-24 修回日期:2009-11-23 出版日期:2010-04-20 发布日期:2010-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘玉亭(1975-),男,博士、副教授。主要从事城市住区、城市贫困、城市与区域规划等方面的研究。E-mail:ytliu@scut.edu.cn E-mail:ytliu@scut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:何深静(1978-),女,广西北海人,博士,副教授。主要从事城市更新、城市住房、城市贫困等方面的研究。E-mail:heshenj@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(50808082;40801061)

Poverty profiles and poverty determinants of different social groups in Nanjing

HE Shen-jing1, LIU Yu-ting2, WU Fu-long3   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. School of Architecture, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510641, China;
    3. School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3WA, UK
  • Received:2009-06-24 Revised:2009-11-23 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-20

摘要:

基于2005年在南京市进行的大规模家庭户调查,检查城市不同社会群体的贫困发生率和贫困集聚度,并分析不同贫困群体的特征及贫困的决定因素。1370个调查案例被分为三种类型:无失业人员的城市家庭、有失业人员的城市家庭、农民工家庭。研究采用主观感知和客观测度两种方法分析不同城市群体的贫困发生率和贫困集聚度。城市贫困群体的特征分析集中于其日常生活的最基本元素,包括人口学特征、社会权利、住房条件、邻里关系和社会网络等。研究发现,有失业人员的城市家庭与农民工家庭有着相似的贫困发生率,后者更遭受多重不利。在贫困决定因素方面,城市家庭的贫困主要取决于不利的个人和家庭特征因素,而农民工家庭的贫困很大程度上与制度歧视相联系,农民工不仅在生活条件上而且在社会保障方面仍无法真正融入城市社会。

关键词: 贫困发生率, 贫困集聚度, 贫困特征, 决定因素, 南京市

Abstract:

Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in Nanjing in 2005, this study aims to provide a better understanding of poverty incidence in a contemporary Chinese city and poverty concentration in different social groups, and also profiles poverty groups. Covering not only urban working residents, but also urban unemployed/laid-off residents and rural migrants, this study reveals a more realistic poverty incidence than the official figure would suggest. To understand poverty concentration in different social groups, a total of 1370 cases are categorized into urban households without unemployed, urban households with unemployed, and rural migrants. Two types of poverty measures, poverty line and the sense of deprivation, are compared across different social groups to show different patterns of poverty concentration, in particular the variation in three types of households. To capture an initial portrait of the urban poor, the Nanjing study focuses on the most essential elements of their daily lives, i.e. demographic characteristics, access to social entitlements, housing conditions, neighbourhood interactions and social networks. Urban households with unemployed have a similar poverty incidence to rural migrants; and the latter suffer a series of interrelated disadvantages. There are distinct groups of urban poor, each being affected by a particular set of impoverishing factors. Poor urban-registered households are typically characterised by unfavourable personal or household characteristics, such as a large number of dependent household members and prior employment in a state owned enterprise. The impoverishment of rural migrants is largely connected with institutional discrimination such as lack of rights to social security benefits and unfavourable employment opportunities, rural migrants remain as outsiders of the urban society in terms of both living conditions and social welfare provision on the other.

Key words: poverty incidence, poverty concentration, poverty profile, determinants, Nanjing