地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 716-726.doi: 10.11821/yj2010040014

• 经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市制造业分布的圈层结构演变——基于第一、二次基本单位普查资料的分析

刘涛,曹广忠   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2009-07-18 修回日期:2009-11-05 出版日期:2010-04-20 发布日期:2010-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 曹广忠(1969-),男,博士,副教授。E-mail:caogzh@urban.pku.edu.cn E-mail:caogzh@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘涛(1987-),男,安徽宿州人,研究生。研究方向为城市地理与城市规划。E-mail:liutao@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40871075)。

The changing layer structure of manufacturing in Beijing and its factor decomposition: Based on the National Census of Basic Units

LIU Tao, CAO Guang-zhong   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2009-07-18 Revised:2009-11-05 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-20

摘要:

基于第一、二次基本单位普查的企业数据,以邮区为基本空间单元,以制造业密度突变和总量增减为标准,将北京市划分为三个圈层:制造业衰退的中心城区已蔓延至四环;投资和外迁企业的集中区也已不限于城八区,而是迅速扩展至平原地区大部;远郊区县和山区的制造业发展缓慢。各产业类型、所有制类型和规模等级的制造业圈层结构及其演变均有较大差异。因素分解表明,北京市制造业圈层结构演变的主要推动力是电气电子和金属与矿物类产业、私有企业和大中型企业;企业规模结构的小型化和产业结构调整也有一定的促进作用。研究认为应充分重视产业结构调整与空间布局调整的结合,遏止和扭转各圈层内产业结构均衡化和圈层间产业结构同质化的趋势。近郊平原制造业的核心地位仍将长期保持,用地集约化至关重要;中心城区可以适度发展都市型制造业,促进就业多样化;远郊化的谨慎推进则应以生态保育为前提。

关键词: 制造业空间分布, 圈层结构, 郊区化, 因素分解, 基本单位普查, 北京

Abstract:

Based on the National Census of Basic Units and an analysis of 161 postal districts in Beijing, this paper studies Beijing's layer structure of manufacturing between 1996 and 2001 and its driving forces.By taking density mutation and total quantity change of manufacturing employment as the criteria, Beijing can be divided into three layers: the central urban area with manufacturing decline has extended to the Fourth Ring Road; the suburban active region of both newly-built and relocated enterprises has rapidly extended to most of the plain areas; manufacturing growth in the mountainous outer suburban counties is still slow.The factor decomposition shows that the evolution of manufacturing layer structure is driven by electric and electronic industries, metal and non-metallic products industries, private enterprises and large and medium-sized enterprises. The adjustment of scale and industrial structure also plays a certain role. We also find the trend of intra-layer diversification and equalization of industries and inter-layer convergence of industrial structure. The middle layer to which the intensification of land use is of paramount importance will maintain its manufacturing superiority in a long period. Urban industries are recommended in the central urban area and ecological conservation should be the premise of outer suburbanization.

Key words: spatial distribution of manufacturing, layer structure, suburbanization, factor decomposition, National Census of Basic Units, Beijing