地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 757-766.doi: 10.11821/yj2010040018

• 旅游与文化 • 上一篇    

民间信仰地域分异的微观分析——泉州三个村庄神祇生态位宽度测量和比较

郑衡泌1,2, 陈文龙3   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871;
    2. 福建师范大学地理研究所,福州 350007;
    3. 中国社会科学院研究生院宗教系,北京 100102
  • 收稿日期:2009-07-01 修回日期:2009-10-26 出版日期:2010-04-20 发布日期:2010-04-20
  • 作者简介:郑衡泌(1973-),女,福建惠安人,助理研究员,博士生。主要从事历史文化地理研究。 E-mail: jqsha@163.com。
    陈文龙(1973-),男,福建周宁人,博士生。主要从事道教、民间信仰研究。E-mail:cwl20061016@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    福建省公益类科研院所基本科研专项重点项目(2009R10039-5)

Micro-analysis of regional differentiation of folk beliefs: The measure and comparison of gods' niche breadth of Quanzhou three villages

ZHENG Heng-mi1,2, CHEN Wen-long3   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China;
    3. Department of Religion, Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100102, China
  • Received:2009-07-01 Revised:2009-10-26 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-20

摘要:

民间信仰区域分异,前人的研究多数定位于有方言差异的大尺度区域。但无方言差异的小尺度区域内,人们对神祇的信仰和供奉也存在一定的差异。本文利用生态位理论及生态位宽度测度模型对泉州市东海镇三个不同村落(蟳埔、宝山和法石)的民间神祇信仰情况进行微观分析。结果显示,在无方言差异的小尺度区域内,影响神祇在区域内生态位宽度的最主要因素是神祇功能与这个区域产业类型的相关程度。神祇的功能与区域内产业类型的相关程度是影响民间信仰神祇区域分异的重要因素。区域间产业类型的分异受自然地理条件的影响。因此,特定功能神祇的区域分异与自然地理环境有密切关系。由生态位宽度测度模型计算出的民间信仰神祇生态位数据与神祇在三个村落的分布及影响的实际情况比较契合,生态位理论应用于民间信仰神祇的区域研究是可行的。

关键词: 民间信仰, 区域分异, 神祇生态位, 神祇功能生态位

Abstract:

With regards to the regional differentiation of folk beliefs, most of previous researches focus on the large scale regions in which there are clear differences in dialects. Within the small scale regions which belong to villages in the same town and have no difference in dialects, people still have different gods. In this paper, niche theory and niche breadth measure model are used in the micro-analysis of folk belief differentiation in three different villages in Quanzhou Donghai Town, which are Xunpu, Baoshan and Fashi. The results show that in such small scale regions with no difference in dialects, the most important factor which influences gods' niche breadth is the correlation between gods' functions and the industries in the regions. In the region, the gods' influence, distribution and function changes are all dominated by the law. The Gods' regional differentiation due to the gods' niche breadth correlates with the differentiation of regional industries. Differentiation of regional industries is formed by geographical conditions. Therefore, the regional differentiation of the gods with specific functions is closely related with the natural geographic environment. Agricultural Gods dominate agricultural regions while gods who bless the safety of seafaring dominate regions with industries regards to marine transport and fisheries. In the transitional zone, two types of gods' niche overlap and change with competition. In small scale regions, gods with universal functions have smaller niche breadth than those with functions which are highly related with regional economy. But in large scale regions, gods with universal functions have larger niche breadth than others. In the same region, god's niche breadth changes with changes of god's functions' and regional industries. The same gods in different regions have different niche breadths according to their functions and main regional industries. The results of folk gods' niche breaths which are calculated with niche breadth model accord with the influence and distribution of gods in three villages which confirms the feasibility of applying niche theory to the regional researches of folk beliefs.

Key words: folk belief, regional differentiation, god’s niche breadth, god’s function niche breadth