地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 1244-1256.doi: 10.11821/yj2010070010

• 土地资源与利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

土地变化科学中的尺度问题与解决途径

陈睿山,蔡运龙   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,土地科学中心,地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2009-10-09 修回日期:2010-01-16 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 蔡运龙(1948-),男,贵州贵阳人,教授。主要从事自然地理学、自然资源学、土地科学、地理学理论与方法的教学和研究工作。E-mail: caiyl@urban.pku.edu.cn E-mail:caiyl@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:陈睿山(1982-),男,甘肃武威人,博士生。从事土地科学研究。E-mail:chenrsh04@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40871047);科技部创新方法工作(2007FY140800)

Progress in the study of scale issues in land change science

CHEN Rui-shan, CAI Yun-long   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, the Center for Land Study, Peking University|Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2009-10-09 Revised:2010-01-16 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-20

摘要:

尺度问题是土地变化科学中的关键问题。总结国内外近10年来土地变化研究中尺度问题的进展表明:土地变化研究中的尺度问题多集中于数据处理、格局与过程的表征、驱动力的影响、模型运用、生态环境效应以及土地政策与可持续管理等方面。尺度问题主要产生于地理现象的异质性、地理系统的等级性、响应与反馈的非线性、干扰因素的影响及主观认识的局限等。土地变化中尺度问题研究的一般途径为尺度选择-尺度分析-尺度综合;尺度选择时应该以问题为指向,数据为基础,选择适宜的尺度;尺度分析中需要从更大尺度和更小尺度同时开展分析,找出重要的变化动态,防止信息的遗漏或夸大;尺度综合是认识全球与地方关系的纽带,可将其分为尺度上推和尺度下推,在尺度综合中方法是主导,目标是寻找各尺度之间的"连通性"。模型有助于深刻理解土地利用系统动态,发展嵌套式模型是目前尺度综合研究中的重要内容。

关键词: 土地变化, 尺度问题, 尺度选择, 尺度综合

Abstract:

Scale issues are the focus of land change science. Systematical summary of the progress of the scale issues in land change studying at home and abroad for recent ten years shows that: the scale issues in land change study mainly focused on data processing, pattern and process representing, the influence of driving forces, application of models, environmental effects, land policy and sustainable management. Scale issues arise primarily from the heterogeneity of geographical phenomena, hierarchy of geographical systems, non-linear characteristics of the response and feedback, influence of the disturbance, limitations of subjective awareness and so on. The scale issues have puzzled the development of land change science, Land Use and Land Cover change (LUCC), Global Land Project (GLP), Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and other major international projects, which all have taken the scale issues as a prior concern in its research agenda. It is urgent that multi-case synthesis, multi-level data processing, understanding of the relationships between global and local scales and the application of landscape ecology research paradigm should deal with scaling. The general approach of scale study is scale selection - scale analysis - scale integration; when performing the scale selection, we should consider the questions which would be solved and the data which can be collected, then choose the appropriate scale; when performing the scale analysis, it is required that analysis should be carried out on larger and smaller scales at the same time, to find a significant change in dynamics, to prevent the omission or exaggeration of information. Scaling is the bond to recognize the relationship between global and local scales, which can be divided into scaling-up and scaling-down, when performing the scaling, the method is the key problem, whose objective is to find the "connectivity" between scales. Models can help to deeply understand the land use system dynamics, thus developing the nested model is the key problem in scaling study nowadays, for example, to nest the CLUE-S with ABM/LC and so on.

Key words: land change, scale issues, scale selection, scaling